Favoreggiamento criminale negli Emirati Arabi Uniti: leggi sulla cospirazione

Per favoreggiamento si intende l’incoraggiamento, l’incitamento, il favoreggiamento o l’agevolazione intenzionale nella commissione di un reato da parte di un’altra persona. Si tratta di un reato nascente, nel senso che il complice può essere ritenuto responsabile anche se il reato di complicità non è mai stato effettivamente commesso. Negli Emirati Arabi Uniti (EAU), il favoreggiamento è considerato un reato grave con sanzioni salate.

Esistono tre tipi principali di favoreggiamentoistigazionecospirazioneaiuto intenzionale.
This article aims to shed light on the elements, types, and real-world implications of abetment under the criminal law of UAE

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Elementi di favoreggiamento

Affinché un atto possa essere considerato favoreggiamento, devono essere soddisfatti due elementi chiave:

  • Actus Reus (The Guilty Act): This refers to the specific actions of instigation, engagement in conspiracy, or intentional aiding. Actus reus is the physical component of a crime, such as the act of encouraging someone to commit a robbery or providing them with the means to do so.
  • Mens Rea (The Guilty Mind): The abettor must have the intention to provoke, aid, or facilitate the commission of a criminal offense. Mens rea refers to the mental element of a crime, such as the intention to help someone commit a criminal act.

Additionally, there is generally no requirement that the abetted crime actually be successfully carried out for liability under abetment law. The abettor can be prosecuted based solely on their intention and actions to promote the crime, even if the crime itself was never completed.

Types or Forms of Abetment

Ci sono tre modi principali in cui crimine di favoreggiamento può verificarsi:

1. Istigazione

Defined as directly or indirectly sollecitando, provocante, incoraggiando, o adescamento someone else to commit a crime. This can occur through words, gestures, or other means of communication. Instigation requires active involvement and criminal intent. For example, if someone repeatedly tells their friend to rob a bank and provides detailed plans on how to do it, they could be guilty of instigating the crime, even if the friend never follows through with the robbery.

2. Cospirazione

An accordo between two or more people to commit a crime. Often considered the most serious form of abetment, conspiracy requires merely the agreement, regardless of any further steps or actions taken. A conspiracy can exist even if the individuals never actually carry out the planned crime.

3. Aiuto intenzionale

Providing assistance or resources like weapons, transportation, advice that intentionally aids in a criminal act. Intentional aiding requires active complicity and intention. Liability applies even if the abettor is not physically present at the crime scene. For instance, if someone knowingly lends their car to a friend to use in a planned robbery, they could be guilty of intentionally aiding the crime.

Favoreggiamento contro il crimine vero e proprio

È importante distinguere tra an complice e la principale delinquente chi commette direttamente il reato agire:

  • Abettors are considered accessories to the crime, while the principal offender is the primary perpetrator who directly carries out the criminal act.
  • Sia i sostenitori che i mandanti possono affrontare criminale punitorit e sanzioni. However, abettors generally receive lighter sentences compared to the principal offenders who directly committed the crime.
  • Proving a causal link (proximate cause) between the abettor’s actions and the subsequent crime is key for establishing liability. Prosecutors must show that the abettor’s encouragement or assistance directly contributed to the commission of the crime.

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Punizione per favoreggiamento

The severity of punishment for abetment varies based on the circumstances of the case:

  • If the abetted offense is actually committed, the abettor faces equal punishment as the principal offender who directly carried out the crime. For example, if the abettor helped plan a murder and the murder was successfully carried out, the abettor could face the same punishment as the individual who committed the murder.
  • Se il crimine c'era stato tentato ma non completato, la punizione varia a seconda della gravità del reato. Le frasi comuni includono:
    • multe
    • Fino a 10 anni in prigione
  • La pena di morte come punizione viene applicato in alcuni casi estremi di favoreggiamento.

Difese contro accuse di favoreggiamento

While abetment is considered a serious offense, several legal defenses exist that an experienced criminal defense attorney may employ:

  • Lack of required intention or knowledge: If the abettor did not intend to aid or encourage the crime, or was unaware of the criminal nature of the actions, this could provide a defense.
  • Withdrawal from the criminal conspiracy: If the abettor withdrew from the conspiracy before the crime was committed and took steps to prevent its occurrence, this could negate liability.
  • Claiming duress or coercion: If the abettor was forced to aid or encourage the crime under threat of harm or violence, this could serve as a defense.
  • Demonstrating failed proximate cause between actions and crime: If the abettor’s actions did not directly contribute to the commission of the crime, this could weaken the prosecution’s case for establishing liability.

Understanding potential strategies and using case law precedents are key for building an effective defense against abetment charges.

Esempi reali di favoreggiamento

  • Providing inside information that assists in planning a terrorist attack
  • Encouraging someone over social media to commit violence against a specific group or individual
  • Creating and distributing “how-to” guides for manufacturing illegal explosive devices
  • Helping hide a wanted fugitive from law enforcement by providing shelter or transportation
  • Purchasing hacking tools or software for someone with the intention of aiding them in committing cybercrime

These examples demonstrate the broad scope and real-world applicability of abetment laws in the UAE.

Conclusione

The crime of abetment should not be taken lightly in the UAE. Encouraging, inciting, or aiding in any criminal act carries steep penalties, even if the crime itself was never successfully carried out. A strong understanding of the specific elements, types of abetment, punishment statutes, and potential legal defenses is essential for all UAE citizens to avoid entanglement with these complex laws. Consulting an experienced criminal defense lawyer early on can mean the difference between serving years in prison or avoiding prosecution entirely.

If you have been investigated, arrested, or charged with a criminal offense related to abetment in the UAE, it is crucial to seek legal counsel immediately. A knowledgeable attorney can guide you through the legal process, protect your rights, and ensure the best possible outcome for your case. Do not attempt to navigate the complexities of abetment laws on your own – retain legal representation as soon as possible.

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