Kubira mari kana Hawala muUAE, Mitemo & Zvirango

Hawala uye Kubira Kwemari kunotsanangurwa sei pasi peMitemo yeUAE?

Zvinoenderana neiyo UAE's yemutemo uye yekudzora chimiro, Hawala uye Mari Kubira zvinotsanangurwa sezvizvi:

Hawala: The UAE Central Bank inotsanangura Hawala senzira isina kurongeka yekutamisa mari inoshanda kunze kwematanho akajairwa ekubhanga. Zvinosanganisira kutamiswa kwemari kubva kune imwe nzvimbo kuenda kune imwe kuburikidza nevanopa masevhisi vanozivikanwa se "hawaladars" pasina chero kufamba kwemuviri kwemari.

Kuba Mari: Kubira mari imhosva pasi peUAE Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. Inotsanangurwa senzira yekuvanza kana kuvanza chimiro chechokwadi, kwakabva, nzvimbo, maitiro, mafambiro, kana muridzi wemari kana zvinhu zvinobva mumabasa asiri pamutemo.

Mienzaniso yakajairika inosanganisira: kuronga/kutsveyamisa, makambani emagomba, kutengeserana zvivakwa, kutengeserana-kwakavakirwa marara, mashandiro ekasino, kutengeserana kwecryptocurrency, kubiwa kwemari yakawanda, uye kushandisa zvisizvo Hawala network.

Iyo UAE inotora danho rakasimba kupokana nezviitwa izvi, uye mhedzisiro yepamutemo kune vanhu kana masangano ane chekuita neHawala kana Mari yekubira inogona kuoma. Izvo zvakakosha kutevedzera mirairo yeUAE inopokana nekubira mari uye kuita kutengeserana kwemari kuburikidza nematanho ari pamutemo uye ane mvumo.

Ndirini Hawala Zviri pamutemo kana zvisiri pamutemo muUAE?

Hawala, iyo isina kurongeka yekufambisa mari system, haisi pamutemo muUAE. Zvakadaro, inzira isina kurongeka uye isina kurongeka, inogona kushandiswa kuita zvisiri pamutemo, kusanganisira kubira mari uye kupa mari yehugandanga. Izvo zviri pamutemo zveHawala kutengeserana muUAE zvinoenderana nekwakabva mari uye chinangwa chakatarisirwa.

Kana Hawala ikashandiswa kuendesa mari kubva kune zviri pamutemo zvinyorwa uye nezvinangwa zviri pamutemo, inogona kunzi iri pamutemo. Nekudaro, kana ikashandiswa kuendesa mari yakawanikwa nenzira dzisiri pamutemo kana zviitiko zvisiri pamutemo, sekuba mari, mari yehugandanga, kana kunzvenga mutero, zvinova zvisiri pamutemo pasi pemitemo yeUAE. Zviremera zvakanyatsotarisisa Hawala network kuti ive nechokwadi chekutevedzwa kweanopokana nekutambisa mari uye kudzora-hugandanga mari yemitemo.

Zvakakosha kuziva kuti nepo Hawala pachayo isiri pamutemo, iyo UAE ine mirau yakasimba yekurwisa kushandiswa zvisiri pamutemo masisitimu ekufambisa mari nezvinangwa zvisiri pamutemo. Vanhu nevemabhizinesi vanorairwa kuti vangwarire uye vaite kutengeserana kwemari kuburikidza nemarezinesi uye akadzorwa nzira kudzivirira zvinogona kuitika zviri pamutemo.

Mhando dzeMakesi ekubira mari muUAE

UAE yaona mhando dzakasiyana dzemhosva dzekubira mari dzinosanganisira vanhu nemasangano ari kuita zvisiri pamutemo. Heano mamwe marudzi akajairika emakesi ekubira mari anoonekwa muUAE:

  1. Real Estate-Inoenderana Mari Kubira: Izvi zvinosanganisira kutenga uye kutengeswa kwezvivako pachishandiswa mari inobva kuzvinhu zvisiri pamutemo, zvakadai sekutengesa zvinodhaka, chitsotsi, kana huori.
  2. Trade-Based Money Laundering: Mhando iyi yekubira zvinhu inosanganisira kusafananidzirwa kwemutengo, huwandu, kana kunaka kwezvinhu mukutengeserana kwekunze / kutumira kunze kwekutamisa mari zvisiri pamutemo kumiganhu.
  3. Bulk Cash Smuggling: Izvi zvinosanganisira kutakurwa kwemari yakawanda ichiyambuka miganhu, kazhinji inovigwa mumotokari, mukwende, kana dzimwe nzira, kunzvenga zvinodiwa zvekushuma uye kuvanza kwakabva mari.
  4. Shell Kambani-yakavakirwa Mari Kubira: Mumhando iyi yenyaya, vanhu kana masangano vanotanga makambani emanyepo kana magomba kuvanza muridzi wechokwadi uye kwakabva mari, uye nekupa chivharo chinooneka chiri pamutemo chekutengeserana zvisiri pamutemo.
  5. Kusashandiswa zvisina kunaka kweInformal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS) seHawala: Dzimwe nyaya dzinosanganisira kushandiswa kwemasisitimu ekufambisa mari zvisina kurongeka seHawala kutamisa mari isiri pamutemo pasi rose, zvichitora mukana wekushaikwa kwemaitiro emari echinyakare.
  6. Cryptocurrency-based Money Laundering: Nekuwedzera kwekushandiswa kwemakriptoaktiti, zvimwe zviitiko zvinosanganisira kushandiswa kwemidziyo yedhijitari kuvanza mafambiro uye kwakabva mari isiri pamutemo, kushandisa kusazivikanwa uye kudzoreredzwa kwemaitiro ekutengeserana uku.
  7. Kubira kuburikidza neCasinos uye Gaming Establishments: Mune zvimwe zviitiko, makasino nenzvimbo dzemitambo zvakashandiswa kuchinjana mari yakawanda nemachipisi kana zvimwe zviridzwa zvemari, zvichinyatsovanza kwakabva mari.

Zvakakosha kucherechedza kuti zvirongwa zvekubira mari zvinogona kuve zvakaoma uye nekushanduka nekufamba kwenguva, kazhinji zvichisanganisira musanganiswa wenzira dzakasiyana uye nzira. Matanho akasimba ekurwisa kubira mari, masisitimu akasimba ekutonga, uye kushandira pamwe kwenyika dzese kwakakosha mukurwisa zviitiko zvehutsotsi muUAE.

Chii chinonzi Anti Money Laundering Law muUAE?

Mutemo weAnti-Money Laundering muUAE unotongwa neFederal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. Mutemo wakakwana uyu unotsanangura uye unopa mhosva zviitiko zvekubira mari zvisiri pamutemo, unoburitsa matanho akasimba ekurwisa mari dzehugandanga, uye unogadza hwaro hwakasimba hwekutonga.

Zvinhu zvakakosha zveAnti-Money Laundering Law muUAE zvinosanganisira:

  1. Tsanangudzo yeKupamba Kwemari: Inotsanangura zviri pachena kubira mari sekuvanza kana kuvanza mari inobva mumabasa asiri pamutemo.
  2. Zvinosungirwa Kushuma: Inoda masangano ezvemari uye mabhizinesi kuti aite zviyero zve AML/CFT, kusanganisira kushingairira kwevatengi, kutarisa kwekutengeserana, uye kushuma zviitiko zvinofungirwa.
  3. Zvirango uye Zvirango: Inopa zvirango zvakakomba, zvinosanganisira faindi uye kupfigirwa mujeri, nekusatevedzera.
  4. Zviremera Zvinokwanisa: Inorayira kuumbwa kwezviremera zvakaita seFinancial Intelligence Unit (FIU) kuti itarise kuedza kwe AML/CFT.
  5. Kubatana Kwenyika Dzepasi Pose: Inobatsira kushandira pamwe nekugovana ruzivo nedzimwe nyika mukurwisa kubira mari nekupa mari dzehugandanga.

Ndedzipi Zvirango Zvikuru zveKurangwa Kwemari muUAE?

Mutemo weAnti-Money Laundering weUAE unopa zvirango zvakakomba kuvanhu uye masangano anobatwa nemhosva dzekupambadza mari. Zvirango zvakakura zvemhosva dzekubira mari muUAE ndezvizvi:

  1. Kusungwa:
    • Kune vanhu: Kusvikira kumakore gumi mujeri.
    • Kune mamaneja kana vamiriri vemasangano epamutemo: Kusvikira kumakore gumi nemashanu mutirongo.
  2. Faindi:
    • Kune vanhu: Faindi isingapfuure AED 5 miriyoni (inenge $1.36 miriyoni).
    • Kumasangano epamutemo: Faindi isingadariki AED 50 miriyoni (inenge $13.6 miriyoni).

Pamusoro pezvirango izvi, vanhu vane mhosva kana masangano anogona kutarisanawo ne:

  • Kutorwa kwemari, zvivakwa, kana zvishandiso zvine chekuita nemhosva yekubira mari.
  • Kuparara kana kuvharwa kwenguva pfupi kana zvachose kwesangano repamutemo rine chekuita nemhosva.
  • Kuburitswa kwemutongo wedare mumapepanhau maviri ezuva nezuva emuno achibhadhariswa munhu akabatwa nemhosva.

Zvakakosha kuziva kuti zvirango izvi zvinomiririra chirango chikuru chinotarwa nemutemo. Mutongo chaiwo unogona kusiyana zvichienderana nemamiriro ezvinhu enyaya, kuoma kwemhosva, uye zvimwe zvinoderedza kana kuwedzera zvinhu.

Iyo UAE inotora chimiro chakasimba ichipokana nekuita mari zvisiri pamutemo, uye zvirango zvakakomba izvi zvinoratidza kuzvipira kwenyika kumisa nekurwisa mhosva dzemari mukati mehutongi hwayo.

Pane here maSpecial Proviations eKubira Mari kwakabatana neKupara Mhosva kana Kubhadhara Kwehugandanga?

Ehe, Mutemo weAnti-Money Laundering weUAE unosanganisira zvisungo zvakakosha zvemhosva dzekubira mari dzine chekuita nekuparwa kwemhosva dzakarongeka kana mari yehugandanga:

  1. Zvirango Zvakaoma zveMhosva Yakarongwa: Kana mhosva yekubira mari ichiitwa mukati mehurongwa hweboka rematsotsi rakarongeka, chirango chepamusoro chehusungwa chichawedzerwa nechikamu chakatarwa.
  2. Criminalizing Terrorism Financing: Mutemo unoti kupa mari kwehugandanga nemasangano emagandanga. Munhu upi noupi anounganidza, kutamisa, kana kupa mari kana midziyo nemaune nechinangwa chekuzvishandisa kuita zvehugandanga anogona kutongerwa kugara mujeri kwenguva yakareba uye faindi dzakakura.
  3. International Cooperation: Mutemo unofambisa kudyidzana nedzimwe nyika uye kugovana ruzivo nedzimwe nyika nemasimba mukurwisa kubiwa kwemari, kuparwa kwemhosva dzakarongwa, uye kupa mari yehugandanga. Izvi zvinosanganisira zvisungo zvekuendeswa kune dzimwe nyika uye kubatsirana kwemutemo.
  4. Zvirango Zvemari Zvinotarisirwa: UAE yakaisa zvirango zvemari zvakanangwa kune vanhu uye masangano akatemerwa neUnited Nations Security Council kana mamwe masangano epasi rese anoenderana nekupa mari dzehugandanga kana kudyidzana nemasangano emagandanga.

Izvi zvakakosha zvisungo zvinosimbisa kuzvipira kweUAE mukurwisa mari dzehugandanga nehutsotsi hwakarongeka, izvo zvinounza kutyisidzira kukuru kune kuchengetedzwa kwenyika nepasirese. Zvirango zvakakomba uye nhanho dzakasimudzirwa dzekudyidzana nedzimwe nyika dzine chinangwa chekuvhiringa nekubvisa zviitwa zvisiri pamutemo izvi nemanetwork emari.

Key AML Kutevedza Zvinodiwa kune Mabhizinesi muUAE

Iyo UAE's Anti-Money Laundering Law inoisa akati wandei anoteedzera mabhizinesi ari kushanda mukati menyika. Heano akakosha ekutevedzera AML zvinodiwa kumabhizinesi muUAE:

  1. kunyoresa: Inosungirwa kunyoresa ne goAML portal yeFIs uye DNFBPs.
  2. AML Kuteerera Officer: Sarudza mukuru akazvipira kuti atarisire chirongwa che AML.
  3. AML Chirongwa: Gadzira akakwana marongero uye maitiro eKYC, yekutarisa kutengeserana, manejimendi enjodzi, uye kushuma.
  4. Njodzi-Yakavakirwa Nzira: Tailor AML chirongwa kune bhizinesi saizi, hunhu, uye nenjodzi njodzi.
  5. Mutengi Wakakodzera Diligence (CDD): Ita macheki akakwana eKYC, anosanganisira chitupa chekuzivikanwa uye chitupa chinobatsira chemuridzi.
  6. Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD): Nyorera mamwe matanho kune vatengi vane njodzi yepamusoro sePEPs.
  7. Transaction Monitoring: Tarisa kutengeserana kwezviitwa zvekufungidzira.
  8. Suspicious Activity Reporting: Mhan'ara zvekufungidzira kutengeserana kuFinancial Intelligence Unit (FIU).
  9. Rekodha-Kuchengeta: Chengetedza mutengi uye marekodhi ekutengeserana kweanosvika makore mashanu.
  10. Kudzidziswa kwevashandi: Ipa yenguva dzose AML / CFT kudzidziswa kune vashandi.
  11. Independent Audit: Ita ongororo yenguva dzose yeAML/CFT chirongwa.
  12. Kudyidzana neVane masimba: Batira pamwe nezviremera uye kupa ruzivo rwunodiwa.

Kutadza kutevedzera zvinodiwa izvi kunogona kukonzera zvirango zvakakomba, zvinosanganisira faindi, kusungwa, uye kukanzurwa kwemarezinesi kana kuvharwa kwebhizinesi. Mabhizinesi anoshanda muUAE anofanirwa kukoshesa kutevedzera AML kuderedza njodzi uye kuchengetedza kuvimbika kwehurongwa hwemari.

Chii chinonzi Red Flags mu AML?

Mireza mitsvuku inoreva zviratidzo zvisina kujairika zvinoratidzira zvinogona kuitika zvisiri pamutemo zvinoda kuongororwazve. Yakajairika AML tsvuku mireza ine chekuita ne:

Suspicious Customer Behaviour

  • Kuvanzika pamusoro pekuzivikanwa kana kusada kupa ruzivo
  • Kusada kupa ruzivo nezve hunhu uye chinangwa chebhizinesi
  • Kakawanda uye zvisingatsananguriki shanduko pakuziva ruzivo
  • Kufungidzira kuedza kunzvenga kushuma zvinodiwa

High-Risk Transactions

  • Kubhadhara mari kwakakosha pasina kujeka kwakabva mari
  • Kutengeserana nemasangano ari munzvimbo dzine njodzi huru
  • Complex dhiri zvimiro masking anobatsira varidzi
  • Saizi isina kujairika kana frequency yeprofile yevatengi

Mamiriro Asina kujairika

  • Matengesi asina tsananguro ine musoro/chikonzero chehupfumi
  • Kusaenderana nezvinoitwa nemutengi
  • Kusaziva nezvematanho ekutengeserana akaitirwa munhu

Mireza Tsvuku muUAE's Context

Iyo UAE inotarisana zvakananga njodzi dzekubira mari kubva mukufambiswa kwemari yakawanda, kutengeserana goridhe, Real estate transaction nezvimwe. Mamwe makiyi mireza matsvuku anosanganisira:

Cash Transactions

  • Deposits, kuchinjana kana kubvisa pamusoro peAED 55,000
  • Multiple transactions pazasi pechikumbaridzo kudzivirira kushuma
  • Kutengwa kwemidziyo yemari senge vafambi vanotarisa pasina zvirongwa zvekufamba
  • Kunofungirwa kupindira mune yekunyepedzera muUAE

Kutengeserana Mari

  • Vatengi vanoratidza kunetseka kushoma nezvekubhadhara, makomisheni, magwaro ekutengeserana, nezvimwe.
  • Mharidzo dzenhema dzeruzivo rwezvinhu uye nzira dzekutumira
  • Kusiyana kwakakura mukuunza / kutumira kunze kwehuwandu kana kukosha

Musha

  • Mari yese yekutengesa, kunyanya kuburikidza newaya kutamiswa kubva kumabhangi ekunze
  • Kutengeserana nemasangano ari pamutemo ane muridzi asingagone kusimbiswa
  • Mitengo yekutenga isingaenderane nemishumo yevaluation
  • Kutenga panguva imwe chete uye kutengesa pakati pemasangano ane hukama

Ndarama/Zvishongo

  • Kugara uchitenga mari yezvinhu zvakakosha zvekufungidzira kutengeswa zvakare
  • Kusada kupa humbowo hwekwakabva mari
  • Kutenga/kutengesa pasina purofiti kunyangwe mamiriro emutengesi

Kuumbwa Kwekambani

  • Munhu anobva kunyika ine njodzi anotarisa kukurumidza kumisa kambani yemuno
  • Kuvhiringika kana kusada kukurukura nezvezviitwa zvakarongwa
  • Zvikumbiro zvekubatsira kuvanza zvimiro zvevaridzi

Zviito mukupindura kune Red Flags

Mabhizinesi anofanirwa kutora matanho ane musoro pakuona angangoita AML mireza mitsvuku:

Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD)

Unganidza rumwe ruzivo nezve mutengi, kunobva mari, mamiriro ezviitwa nezvimwe. Humwe humbowo hwechitupa hunogona kupihwa simba kunyangwe kugamuchirwa kwekutanga.

Ongororo neCompliance Officer

Mutevedzeri weAML wekambani anofanirwa kuongorora kunzwisisika kwemamiriro ezvinhu uye kuona zviito zvakakodzera.

Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs)

Kana chiitiko chichiita sechifungira kunyangwe EDD, faira STR kuFIU mukati memazuva makumi matatu. MaSTR anodiwa zvisinei nekukosha kwekutengesa kana mari yekubira iri kuziva kana kufungidzirwa zvine musoro. Zvirango zvinoshanda kune vasina kushuma.

Zviito Zvinoenderana Nengozi

Matanho akaita sekutarisa kwakawedzerwa, kuganhurira chiitiko, kana hukama hwekubuda hunogona kutariswa zvichienderana nemamiriro ezvinhu. Nekudaro, kupenengura zvidzidzo zvine chekuita nekuisa maSTR kunorambidzwa zviri pamutemo.

Kukosha Kwekutarisa Kunoenderera

Nekuchinja kuri kuita mari nekubira mari nemagandanga, kuenderera mberi kwekutarisa kutengeserana uye kungwarira kwakakosha.

Matanho akaita se:

  • Kuongorora masevhisi matsva/zvigadzirwa zvekusagadzikana
  • Kuvandudza kupatsanurwa kwenjodzi dzevatengi
  • Periodic evaluation yeanofungidzirwa chiitiko chekutarisa masisitimu
  • Kuongorora kutengeserana kunopesana nevatengi profiles
  • Kuenzanisa zviitiko kune vezera kana indasitiri yekutanga
  • Kuongorora otomatiki kwezvirango zvinyorwa uye maPEP

Bvumira proactive identification of red flags nyaya dzisati dzawanda.

mhedziso

Kunzwisisa zviratidzo zvezvingangoitika zvisiri pamutemo kwakakosha kune AML kutevedzera muUAE. Mireza mitsvuku ine chekuita nemaitiro emutengi asina kujairika, mafambisirwo ekufungidzira, masaizi ekutengeserana asingaenderane nemazinga emari, uye zvimwe zviratidzo zvakanyorwa pano zvinofanira kuenderera mberi nekuferefetwa.

Kunyange zvazvo nyaya dzakananga dzichisarudza zviito zvakakodzera, kubvisa zvinonetsa zvinogona kuva nemigumisiro yakakomba. Kunze kwezvinokonzeresa zvemari uye mukurumbira, mirau yeUAE yeAML inoisa mutoro wevanhu kana mhosva yekusatevedzera.

Saka zvakakosha kuti mabhizinesi aite zvidzoreso zvakaringana uye kuona kuti vashandi vakadzidziswa kuziva uye kupindura nenzira kwayo kune Red Flag Indicators muAM.

About The Author

Imwe pfungwa pa "Kubira mari kana Hawala muUAE, Mitemo & Zvirango"

  1. Avatar yeColen

    Murume wangu akamiswa kuDubai Airport achiti ari kugezesa mari aifamba nemari yakawandisa iyo yaakatora kubhengi reUK akayedza kutumira imwe kwandiri asi masisitimu ayo pazasi kubhengi uye akatadza kuita izvi uye mari yese yaainayo iripo naye.
    Mwanasikana wake achangobva kuvhiya hart uye achaburitswa muchipatara muUK uye achashaya kwekuenda iye ane makore gumi nematatu ekuberekwa.
    Mukuru wepanhandare yendege anoti anoda kubhadhara mari inosvika zviuru zvishanu zvemadhora asi mapurisa atora mari yake yese.
    Ndokumbirawo murume wangu murume akanaka akatendeseka semhuri anoda kuuya kumba uye kuunza mwanasikana wake kuno kuSouth Africa
    Chii chatinoita izvozvi chero zvishoma kana zano richabatsira
    Ndatenda
    Colleen Lawson

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