Inobwinya Kare uye Yazvino yeUnited Arab Emirates

Nhoroondo yeUAE

United Arab Emirates (UAE) inyika idiki, asi ine hupfumi hwenhoroondo nhaka inodzokera kumashure zviuru zvemakore. Iri mukona yekumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweArabia Peninsula, iyi mubatanidzwa wemaemirates manomwe - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, Ras Al Khaimah neFujairah - yakashanduka nemazana emakore kubva mugwenga risingagarwi rinogarwa nemadzinza eBedouin. nzanga ine simba, cosmopolitan uye economic powerhouse.

Chii chinonzi Nhoroondo yeUnited Arab Emirates

Nzvimbo yatinoziva seUAE yanga iri mharadzano yenzira inobatanidza Africa, Asia neEurope kwemireniyamu, iine humbowo hwekuchera matongo hunoratidza kugara kwevanhu kubva kuStone Age. Munguva dzakare-kare, marudzi akasiyana-siyana aitonga nharaunda yacho panguva dzakasiyana, kusanganisira vaBhabhironi, vaPersia, vaPutukezi neBritish. Nekudaro, kwaive kuwanikwa kweoiri muma1950 kwakaunza zvechokwadi nguva itsva yebudiriro nebudiriro yemaemirates.

UAE yakawana rinhi rusununguko?

Mushure mekuwana rusununguko kubva kuBritain muna 1971, iyo UAE yakakurumidza kugadzirisa pasi pemutongi wayo akatanga, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Mukati memakumi mashoma emakore, maguta akaita seAbu Dhabi neDubai akashandurwa kubva mumisha inorara yekuredza kuita mahombe emazuva ano, marefu. Zvakadaro vatungamiriri veEmirates vakashanda nesimba kuchengetedza hupfumi hwavo hwetsika netsika dzechiArab pamwe nekukura kunoshamisa kwehupfumi. Nhasi, United Arab Emirates inomira senzvimbo yepasi rose yebhizinesi, kutengeserana, kushanya uye hunyanzvi. Nekudaro, nhoroondo yaro inoratidza nyaya inonakidza yekusimba, kuona, uye huchenjeri hwevanhu kukunda matambudziko enzvimbo yakaoma yerenje kugadzira imwe yenyika dzine simba muMiddle East.

UAE ine makore mangani senyika?

United Arab Emirates (UAE) inyika idiki, yawana rusununguko kubva kuBritain uye yakaumbwa zviri pamutemo senyika muna Zvita 2, 1971.

Chokwadi chakakosha nezvezera uye kuumbwa kweUAE:

  • Gore ra1971 risati rasvika, dunhu rava kuumba UAE raizivikanwa seTrucial States, muunganidzwa wemasheikhdom pamhenderekedzo yePersian Gulf yanga ichidzivirirwa neBritish kubva muzana ramakore re19.
  • Musi waZvita 2, 1971, matanhatu emaemirates manomwe - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, uye Fujairah - akabatanidzwa kugadzira United Arab Emirates.
  • Wechinomwe emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, akabatana nemubatanidzwa weUAE muna Kukadzi 1972, achipedzisa maemirates manomwe anoumba UAE yazvino.
  • Naizvozvo, iyo UAE yakapemberera kusvitsa kwayo makore makumi mashanu senyika yakabatana muna Zvita 50, 2, ichimaka hafu yezana kubvira payakavambwa muna 2021.
  • Vasati vabatanidzwa muna 1971, maemirates ega aive nenhoroondo kubva mazana emakore apfuura, nemhuri dzeAl Nahyan neAl Maktoum dzaitonga Abu Dhabi neDubai zvakateerana kubva muzana ramakore rechi18.

Iyo UAE yaive yakaita sei isati yaumbwa muna 1971?

Isati yabatanidzwa muna 1971, dunhu rava United Arab Emirates raive nemasheikhdom manomwe akasiyana kana emirates inozivikanwa seTrucial States.

Aya masheikhdom aivepo kwemazana emakore achidzorwa nemasimba akasiyana eumambo sePortugal, Dutch, neBritish. Vairarama nemari yaibva pamaparera, kubata hove, kufudza mombe dzokutama-tama, uye kumwe kutengeserana mugungwa.

Mamwe mapoinzi akakosha nezve pre-1971 UAE dunhu:

  • Nharaunda iyi yakanga ine vanhu vashoma vemarudzi eBedouin vanotama-tama nemisha miduku yokuredza/maparera iri pedyo nemhenderekedzo.
  • Nemamiriro okunze akaipa emurenje, mukati maiva muine pokugara zvachose kana kuti zvokurima kunze kwemataundi asina mvura.
  • Hupfumi hwaive hwakavakirwa pamabasa ekurarama senge pearl diving, hove, kufudza mombe, uye kutengeserana kwekutanga.
  • Imwe neimwe emirate yaive humambo hwakakwana hwaitongwa nasheikh kubva kune imwe yemhuri yakakurumbira yedunhu.
  • Pakanga paine zvivakwa zvishoma zvemazuva ano kana budiriro iripo kusati kwatanga kutengeswa kwemafuta muma1960.
  • Abu Dhabi neDubai aive madhorobha akaderera zvakanyanya zvichienzaniswa nemukurumbira wavo wemazuva ano semaguta.
  • MaBritish akachengetedza mauto ekudzivirira uye akasununguka kutonga kwezvematongerwo enyika pamusoro penyaya dzekunze dzeTrucial States.

Saka muchidimbu, pre-1971 UAE yaive muunganidzwa wakasiyana kwazvo wevasina budiriro yemadzinza esheikhdom nyika yemazuva ano isati yatanga uye shanduko huru inotungamirwa nehupfumi hwemafuta mushure memakore ekuma1960.

Ndeapi aive matambudziko makuru muUAE apfuura?

Heano mamwe ematambudziko makuru ayo UAE yakatarisana nayo munguva yakapfuura isati yasvika uye panguva yekuumbwa kwayo:

Harsh Natural Environment

  • Iyo UAE iri munzvimbo yakaoma zvikuru yegwenga, zvichiita kuti kurarama nekusimudzira kuve kwakaoma nguva dzazvino.
  • Kushaikwa kwemvura, kushaikwa kwevhu rinorimika, uye tembiricha dzinopisa zvakapa zvinetso zvenguva dzose pakugarisana kwevanhu nemabasa oupfumi.

Subsistence Economy

  • Oiri isati yatanga kutengeswa, dunhu iri raive nehupfumi hwekuzviraramisa hwakavakirwa pakunyura kweparera, kubata hove, kufudza mombe, uye kutengeserana kushoma.
  • Paive neindasitiri shoma, zvivakwa kana budiriro yehupfumi yemazuva ano kudzamara mari dzemafuta dzakabvumidza shanduko yekukurumidza kutanga muma1960s.

Kuparadzana Kwemadzinza

  • Iwo maemirates manomwe munhoroondo aitongwa semasheikhdom akaparadzana nemapoka emarudzi akasiyana uye mhuri dzinotonga.
  • Kubatanidza aya marudzi akaparadzana kuva rudzi rwakabatana kwakaunza zvipingamupinyi zvezvamatongerwe enyika netsika zvaifanira kukurirwa.

Kufurira kweBritish

  • SeNyika dzeTrucial, maemirates aive pasi pedziviriro dzakasiyana dzeBritish uye pesvedzero isati yawana rusununguko muna 1971.
  • Kugadza uchangamire hwakazara uku uchitarisira kubuda kwemauto eBritish nevapi vezano raive dambudziko rekuchinja.

Kusikwa kweNational Identity

  • Kusimudzira yakasarudzika nyika Emirati kuzivikanwa uye mugari uku uchiremekedza tsika dze7 dzakasiyana emirates zvaida kungwarira kuita mitemo.
  • Kukudziridza hurudzi hweUAE hwakakura kubva mukuvimbika kwedzinza/dunhu chaive chipingamupinyi chekutanga.

Ndezvipi zviitiko zvakakosha munhoroondo yeUAE?

1758Mhuri yeAl Nahyan inodzinga mauto ePezhiya uye inogadza kutonga pamusoro pedunhu reAbu Dhabi, kutanga kutonga kwavo.
1833Iyo Perpetual Maritime Truce inounza iyo Trucial States pasi peBritish chengetedzo uye pesvedzero.
1930sIwo ekutanga matura emafuta anowanikwa muTrucial States, achigadzira nhanho yehupfumi huchauya.
1962Kutengeswa kwemafuta asina kuchena kunze kwenyika kunotanga kubva ku Abu Dhabi, zvichiunza shanduko yehupfumi.
1968MaBritish anozivisa hurongwa hwekumisa hukama hwavo hwechibvumirano neTrucial States.
December 2, 1971Maemirates matanhatu (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, Fujairah) vanobatana kuti vagadzire United Arab Emirates.
February 1972Yechinomwe emirate yeRas Al Khaimah inobatana nemubatanidzwa weUAE.
1973IUAE inobatana neOPEC uye inoona kuwedzera kukuru kwemari yemafuta mushure medambudziko remafuta.
1981Mutevedzeri weMutungamiriri weUAE Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum anotanga hurongwa hwekugadzirisa hupfumi kupfuura mafuta.
2004UAE inobata paramende yayo yekutanga yakasarudzwa zvishoma uye sarudzo dzedare revanopa mazano.
2020Iyo UAE inotanga basa rayo rekutanga kuMars, iyo Hope orbiter, ichisimbisa zvishuvo zvayo zvemuchadenga.
2021Iyo UAE inopemberera makore makumi mashanu ekuvambwa kwayo uye inozivisa hurongwa hwehupfumi hunotevera makumi mashanu.

Zviitiko izvi zvinoratidzira kwakabva dunhu reTrucial, pesvedzero yeBritish, zviitiko zvakakosha mukubatana kweUAE nekusimudzira zvinofambiswa neoiri, uye nekuedza kwayo kwazvino kusiyanisa uye kubudirira kwenzvimbo.

Ndivanaani vaive nhamba dzakakosha munhoroondo yeUAE?

  • Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan - Baba mukuru wekutanga akava Mutungamiriri wekutanga weUAE muna 1971 mushure mokunge atotonga Abu Dhabi kubvira 1966. Akabatanidza maEmirates uye akatungamirira nyika kuburikidza nemakumi emakore ekutanga.
  • Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum - Mutongi ane simba weDubai uyo akatanga kupikisa kubatana kweUAE asi akazobatana seMutevedzeri weMutungamiri muna 1971. Akabatsira kushandura Dubai kuita bhizimusi guru rebhizimisi.
  • Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan - Mutungamiriri aripo, akatsiva baba vake Sheikh Zayed muna 2004 uye akaenderera mberi nekusiyana kwehupfumi uye budiriro.
  • Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum - Iyezvino Prime Minister, Mutevedzeri weMutungamiri uye mutongi weDubai, akatarisira kukura kweDubai seguta repasi rose kubva kuma2000s.
  • Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qasimi - Mutongi akagara kwenguva refu, akatonga Ras Al Khaimah kwemakore anopfuura makumi matanhatu kusvika 60 uye achipikisa kurudziro yeBritish.

Oiri yakaita basa rei mukuumba nhoroondo yeUAE?

  • Oiri isati yawanikwa, dunhu iri rakanga risina budiriro, paine hupfumi hwekuzviraramisa hwakavakirwa pakubata hove, maparera nekutengeserana.
  • Mumakore ekuma1950-60s, madhipoziti makuru emafuta ekumahombekombe akatanga kushandiswa, achipa hupfumi hwakakura hwaitsigira zvivakwa, budiriro nemagariro.
  • Mari yemafuta yakabvumira iyo UAE kuti ikurumidze kuita zvechizvino-zvino mushure mekuwana rusununguko, kushanduka kubva kumvura yakashata kuenda kurudzi rwakapfuma mumakumi mashoma emakore.
  • Nekudaro, hutungamiriri hweUAE hwakazivawo hunhu hwemafuta uye hwakashandisa mihoro kusiyanisa hupfumi kuita kushanya, kubhururuka nendege, zvivakwa nemasevhisi.
  • Kunyange zvisisatsamire paoiri chete, budiriro yakaunzwa neiyo hydrocarbon kutengesa kunze kwenyika ndiyo yakakonzeresa iyo UAE kusimuka kwehupfumi hwemamiriro ekunze uye kuvandudzwa.

Saka hupfumi hwemafuta hwakanga hwakanyanya kushandura mutambo wakasimudza maemirates kubva muhurombo uye kutendera chiono chevatangi veUAE kuti chizadzikiswe nekukurumidza mushure me1971.

Iyo UAE yakave sei nekufamba kwenguva maererano netsika, hupfumi, uye nzanga?

Netsika, iyo UAE yakachengetedza nhaka yayo yechiArab neIslam ichimbundirawo zvechizvinozvino. Tsika dzechivanhu dzakafanana nekugamuchira vaeni dzinogara pamwe nekubudirana pachena kune dzimwe tsika. Nezvehupfumi, yakashanduka kubva kuhupfumi hwekuzviraramisa kuenda kune yedunhu rekutengeserana uye tourism hub inofambiswa nehupfumi hwemafuta uye kusiyanisa. Zvemagariro, madzinza uye mhuri dzakatambanudzwa dzinoramba dzakakosha asi nzanga yakakurumidza kuita maguta sezvo vabvakure vachiwanda kupfuura vagari veko.

Nhoroondo yeUAE yakakanganisa sei mamiriro ayo aripo?

Nhoroondo yeUAE sedunhu rerenje riri pasi peBritish pesvedzero yakaumba masangano ayo emazuva ano uye kuzivikanwa. Iyo federal system inoenzanisa kuzvitonga kunodiwa ne7 aimbove sheikhdoms. Mhuri dzinotonga dzinochengeta masimba ezvematongerwo enyika dzichitungamira budiriro yeupfumi. Kushandisa hupfumi hwemafuta kuvaka hupfumi hwekutengeserana hwakasiyana hunoratidza zvidzidzo kubva mukuderera kweindasitiri yepearling.

Ndedzipi dzimwe nzvimbo dzakakosha dzenhoroondo dzekushanyira muUAE?

Al Fahidi Historical Neighborhood (Dubai) - Iyi nhare yakagadziridzwa inoratidza zvivakwa zvechinyakare uye mamuseum paEmirati nhaka. Qasr Al Hosn (Abu Dhabi) - Chivakwa chekare chematombo mu Abu Dhabi chinosvika kuma1700s, yaimbova imba kumhuri inotonga. Mleiha Archaeological Site (Sharjah) - Zvisaririra zvekugara kwevanhu kwekare nemakuva uye zvigadzirwa zvemakore anopfuura 7,000. Fujairah Fort (Fujairah) - Yakadzoreredzwa-yakavakirwa nhare yechiPutukezi kubva 1670 yakatarisana nenharaunda dzekare dzeguta.

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