Litlolo tsa molao tsa Forgery, Melao le kotlo ea ho qhekella UAE

Ho qhekella e bua ka tlōlo ea molao ea ho qhekella tokomane, tekeno, chelete ea chelete, mosebetsi oa bonono kapa ntho e ’ngoe e le hore u ka thetsa ba bang. Ke tlolo ea molao e tebileng e ka bakang likotlo tse kholo tsa molao. Sengoliloeng sena se fana ka tlhahlobo e tebileng ea mefuta e fapaneng ea tlolo ea molao e amoheloang tlasa molao oa UAE, lipehelo tsa molao tse tsamaellanang, le likotlo tse matla tse letetseng ba fumanoang ba le molato oa litlolo tse joalo.

Tlhaloso ea Forgery tlas'a Molao oa UAE ke efe?

Ho qhekella ke mokhoa oa ho etsa, ho fetola, kapa ho etsisa lintho kapa litokomane ka sepheo sa ho thetsa. Ho akarelletsa ho etsa ntho ea bohata e le hore u fumane molemo. Sena se akarelletsa ho etsa chelete ea maiketsetso, ho etsa litšoantšo tsa bohata, ho tekena lipampiri tsa molao, ho fetola licheke ho utsoa chelete le tse ling tse thetsang. mesebetsi e meng ea. E hlalosoa tlas'a Molao oa Federal No. 3 oa 1987 (Penal Code) ho Article 216.

Ho na le lintlha tse 'maloa tsa bohlokoa tseo ka kakaretso li khethollang likopi kapa lipehelo:

  • Boikemisetso ba ho qhekanyetsa kapa ho thetsa - Lits'oants'o tsa maiketsetso li entsoe ka sepheo se sebe ho fapana le ho tsoala ka molao.
  • Kemedi ya bohata - Baetsi ba tla re mosebetsi oa bona o molaong kapa o entsoe ke motho e mong.
  • Phetoho ea boleng - Liphetoho li etsoa ho eketsa boleng kapa ho hlahisa melemo e itseng.

Mehlala e meng e tloaelehileng ea lintho tse lebisitsoeng ke baferefere kenyeletsa likonteraka, licheke, chelete, litokomane tsa boitsebahatso, lintho tsa khale tsa khale, mesebetsi ea bonono, pokello, le lirekoto tsa transaction ea lichelete. Taba ea bohlokoa ke hore ho qhekella hangata ho kenyelletsa litokomane kapa lisebelisoa tsa molao tsa molao. Ha se boikaketsi bo bong le bo bong bo tšoanelehang e le tlolo ea molao - ke tse amanang le lirekoto tsa molao/chelete feela tse ileng tsa etsa liphoso ntle le molao.

Mefuta e fapaneng ea Forgery e Amohuoang UAE ke efe?

Ho na le mekhoa e mengata e sebelisoang ho theha forgeries ho itshetlehile ka mofuta wa ntho e qosoang. Mefuta e tloaelehileng ea ho qhekella e kenyelletsa:

Tokomane ea Forgery

Sena se kenyelletsa ho theha litokomane tsa fake kapa ho fetola tlhahisoleseling litokomaneng tse molaong bakeng sa merero ea bomenemene. Lipheo tse tloaelehileng li kenyelletsa:

  • Litokomane tsa boitsebiso – Lilaesense tsa ho khanna, liphasepoto, likarete tsa tšireletso ea sechaba.
  • Litokomane tsa lichelete - Licheke, litaelo tsa tefo, likopo tsa kalimo.
  • Lipampiri tsa molao – Litumellano, liwili, liketso, lirekoto tsa baithuti.

Mekhoa e tloaelehileng e kenyelletsa maiketsetso, phetisetso ea leqephe, ho beha mongolo o mocha holim'a litokomane tsa 'nete, ho hlakola kapa ho eketsa tlhahisoleseling, ho lata mesaeno ea litokomane tse ling.

Tšhaeno ea Forgery

Ho qotsa ka matsoho e shebane haholo le ho thetsa lebitso la motho e mong le ngotsoeng ka letsoho. Lipheo tse tloaelehileng li kenyelletsa:

  • Checks - Chelete e fetotsoeng, lebitso la motho ea lefang kapa tekeno ea li-drawer.
  • Litokomane tsa molao - Ho etsa li-signatures mabapi le liwili, likonteraka, liketso.
  • litšoantšo - Ho eketsa li-signature tsa fake ho eketsa boleng.
  • Lintho tsa histori - Ho bua ka bohata lintho tse amanang le batho ba tummeng.

Baetsi ithute ho etsisa ka hloko likarolo tse kang libopeho tsa litlhaku, morethetho oa pene, tatellano ea stroke le khatello.

Boqhekanyetsi

Boqhekanyetsi e akarelletsa ho etsa likopi tsa bohata tsa lintho tsa bohlokoa ka sepheo sa ho qhekella likhoebo le bareki. Lipheo li kenyelletsa:

  • Currency - Bongata ba maiketsetso - likoloto tsa $ 100 US. Ho fihla ho $ 70 milione ea ho potoloha.
  • Thepa ea mabothobotho - Liaparo tsa moqapi, lioache, mabenyane aa kopitsoa.
  • Likarete tsa mokitlane/debit - E ka kopitsoa ka data e utsoitsoeng.
  • Tickets - Maeto a fake, litekete tsa liketsahalo li rekisoa inthaneteng.

Likhatiso tse tsoetseng pele le likarolo tse ncha tsa ts'ireletso li etsa hore maqheka a sejoale-joale a kholisehe haholo.

Art Forgery

Boqhetseke ba bonono e bua ka ho etsa mesebetsi e tšoanang le ea baetsi ba litšoantšo ba tummeng le ho e fetisa e le litšoantšo tsa pele kapa litšoantšo tse betliloeng. Sepheo se kenyelletsa botumo, ho netefatsa, le phaello e ngata ho tsoa ho babokelli ba chesehang ba bonono ba ikemiselitseng ho lefa chelete e ngata bakeng sa likotoana tse lahlehileng tse sa tloaelehang.

Baetsi nehela lilemo tse batlisisang thepa ea baetsi ba litšoantšo, mekhoa le litaele. Ba bangata ka bobona ba na le talenta e ngata ea bonono, ba ithuta ka hloko lipaterone tsa stroke, brushwork, pente e entsoeng ka boqhetseke le ho etsa likopi tsa fake tse ka thetsang litsebi tse hloahloa.

Digital Media Forgery

Tsoelo-pele ea theknoloji e nolofalelitse ho qhekella mecha ea litaba ea dijithale ho kenyelletsa litšoantšo, video, molumo, liwebsaete le tse ling. Ho phahama ha deepfakes e bonts'a mekhoa e matla e tsamaisoang ke AI ea ho theha livideo tsa bohata tsa batho ba etsang kapa ba bua lintho tseo ba sa kang ba li etsa.

Mekhoa e meng e tloaelehileng e kenyelletsa litšoantšo tsa ho etsa lifoto, ho fetola li-audio, ho senya liwebsaete, ho fetola litokomane tse hlahlobiloeng, kapa ho etsa li-screenshots le li-logos. Tsena li ka sebelisoa bakeng sa liketselletso, litaba tse fosahetseng, litlhaselo tsa phishing, bosholu ba boitsebiso le scams inthaneteng.

Setiiso Forgery

Ho qhekella ha Tiiso ke mofuta o itseng oa bolotsana o kenyelletsang tlhahiso e sa lumelloeng, phetisetso, kapa phetoho ea litiiso kapa litempe tse sebelisoang ke mekhatlo ea mmuso, mekhatlo kapa likhoebo. Litiiso tsena li sebetsa e le mokhoa oa ho netefatsa bonnete le bonnete ba litokomane tsa bohlokoa, likonteraka, litifikeiti le litlaleho tse ling tsa molao.

Matla a ho qhekella ha liqibi a itšetlehile ka bokhoni ba eona ba ho senya botšepehi le botšepehi ba litokomane tsena tsa bohlokoa. Ka ho etsa litiiso tsa maiketsetso kapa ho fetola tse seng li ntse li le teng, batlōli ba molao ba ka hlahisa litokomane tsa bohata tse bonahalang e le tsa ’nete, tse ka ’nang tsa lebisa liphellong tsa molao, tsa lichelete kapa tsa botumo ho batho ka bomong kapa mekhatlong.

Phapano ke efe lipakeng tsa Forgery le Falsification?

tšobotsiHo qhekellaBohata
TlhalosoHo theha tokomane ea bohata, ntho kapa ho etsisa ho tloha qalong ka sepheo sa ho thetsa kapa ho qhekella, joalo ka ha ho hlalositsoe ho Article 216 ea UAE Penal Code.Ho fetola kapa ho senya tokomane ea 'nete kapa ntho e itseng molemong oa ho hlahisa lintlha tse fosahetseng, ho latela Article 215.
mehlalaChelete ea maiketsetso, li-degree tsa univesithi tse seng tsa nnete, litšoantšo tsa maiketsetso, boitsebiso ba bohata kapa mesaeno.Ho fetola litlaleho tsa molao, ho fetola litumellano tsa konteraka, ho senya mabitso a lihlahisoa kapa litlhaloso.
MoreroBoikemisetso bo hlakileng ba ho thetsa ka ho bopa ntho e fosahetseng ka botlalo.Boikemisetso ba ho bua 'nete hampe ka ho fetola lintho tsa 'nete.
LitlhophoHo koalloa chankaneng ka nakoana le/kapa ho lefisoa. Bakeng sa ba tsoang kantle ho naha, ho lelekoa naheng ho ka sebetsa maemong a mang.Ho koalloa, ho lefisoa le/kapa ho lelekoa naheng ho latela boima. Harsher bakeng sa basebeletsi ba sechaba.
KopanoHaeba leshano le etsahala nakong ea ts'ebetso ea bolotsana, litlolo tsa molao ka bobeli li ahloleloa ka thoko.Haeba ho qhekella e le karolo ea ts'ebetso ea leshano, bobeli ba bona bo nkuoa e le tlolo ea molao e le 'ngoe le kotlo e kopaneng.
MehlalaLikhaollo tse ling bakeng sa mesebetsi ea bonono, satire kapa ha ho se na morero oa bolotsana.Ho na le mehala e fokolang haholo.
Litlolo tsa Molao tse lingHangata e amahanngoa le bomenemene, ho sebelisa litokomane tsa bohata, joalo-joalo.Hape e ka kenyelletsa tšebeliso e mpe ea ofisi kapa litlolo tse ling.

Phapang e kholo ke hore bosholu bo qala ho tloha qalong ho etsa ntho e fosahetseng ka ho feletseng, ha leshano le fetola litokomane kapa lintho tsa 'nete ka bolotsana. Melao ea UAE e sebetsana le litlolo tsa molao ka bobeli ka matla ho ts'ehetsa botšepehi.

Likotlo tsa Forgery ho UAE ke life?

Litlolo tsa molao tsa UAE li sebetsanoa ka thata, 'me likotlo li ka ba boima ho latela mofuta oa tlolo ea molao e entsoeng. Mona ke likotlo tse ka bang teng bakeng sa litlōlo tsa molao tse khethiloeng:

Tokomane ea Forgery

  • Bakeng sa litokomane tsa semmuso: Nako ea nakoana ea chankana ho fihlela lilemo tse 10 (Amerika ea Penal Code Article 251)
  • Bakeng sa litokomane tseo e seng tsa molao: Ho koalloa chankaneng e entsoeng ke lekhotla, ho fokotsehile ho feta litokomane tsa bohata tsa molao
  • Ho sebelisa likopi tsa litokomane tse qotsitsoeng: Ho fihlela lilemo tse 5 ka mor'a mekoallo (UAE Penal Code Article 217)

Tšhaeno ea Forgery

  • Ho pheta-pheta lisaeno litokomaneng ho oela tlas'a kotlo ea litlolo tsa molao tsa tlolo ea molao

Boqhekanyetsi

  • Chelete ea maiketsetso e nkoa e le bothata bo boholo tsamaisong ea lichelete
  • Likotlo tse boima tse kenyeletsang ho koalloa chankaneng nako e telele le likotlo tse boima lia sebetsa

Art Forgery

  • Likotlo li fapana ho ipapisitsoe le boleng ba mosebetsi oa bonono le sepheo (ho thetsa bareki, ho senya seriti sa moetsi oa litšoantšo)
  • E ka fapana ho tloha ho likotlo tsa lichelete ho isa ho ho koalloa chankaneng, ho itšetlehile ka lintlha tse tobileng

Digital Media Forgery

  • Tlas'a Federal Decree-Law No. 34/2021:
    • Ho theha litokomane tsa elektroniki tsa mmuso oa lehae: Nako ea nakoana chankaneng le AED 150,000-750,000.
    • Litokomane tsa ho qhekella tsa mekhatlo e meng: Chelete ea botlamuoa le/kapa AED 100,000-300,000

Setiiso Forgery

  • E nkuoa e le karolo ea litlolo tsa molao tsa tlolo ea molao
  • Ho ipapisitsoe le likotlo tse boletsoeng bakeng sa litlolo tsa molao tsa tlolo ea molao

Ho hlakile hore UAE e nka mokhoa oa ho se mamelle mofuta ofe kapa ofe oa bolotsana, ka likotlo tse reretsoeng ho thibela liketso tse joalo tse seng molaong tse nyenyefatsang bonnete le ts'epo.

Thibelo ea Forgeries

Ho fokotsa liketsahalo tsa bomenemene ho hloka thibelo e felletseng, e nang le mekhahlelo e lebisitsoeng ho:

Ho Sireletsa Litokomane

  • Boloka lintho tse hlokolosi ka mokhoa o sireletsehileng - li-safe, mabokose a notlelang, li-drive tse patiloeng.
  • Fokotsa phihlello ea 'mele / ea dijithale ka liofisi tse notletsoeng, maano a password.
  • Sebelisa lik'hamera tse behang leihlo, lialamo, basebetsi ba ts'ireletso.

Theknoloji ea netefatso

  • Biometrics - ho lemoha menoana, sefahleho le iris.
  • Blockchain - ledger e ajoang bakeng sa litšebelisano tsa dijithale.
  • Li-signature tsa dijithale - li-identifiers tse patiloeng tse netefatsang bonnete.

Thuto ea Basebelisi

  • Koetlisa basebetsi ho bona forgeries - tsebahatsa litokomane tse fetotsoeng, li-watermark, matšoao a netefatso.
  • Khothaletsa matšolo a tlhokomeliso ka bomenemene a hlalosang likotsi le maano a thibelo.

Ho hira ka Hloko

  • Hlahloba basebetsi ka botlalo pele o fana ka tokomane kapa phihlello ea lichelete.
  • Etsa licheke tsa botlokotsebe, licheke tsa mekitlane, netefatso ea mosebetsi.

Mekhoa ea ho lemoha ka bolotsana

Mekhoa e mengata ea forensic e sebelisoa ke bafuputsi le litokomane bahlahlobi ho fumana hore na lintho ke tsa 'nete kapa forgeries:

  • Tlhahlobo ea ho ngola ka letsoho - Ho bapisa mengolo, melapo, mekhoa ea ho otla, khatello le mekhoa ea ho saena.
  • Tlhahlobo ea pampiri - Ho ithuta li-watermark, li-logos, sebopeho sa lik'hemik'hale le alignment ea fiber.
  • Netefatso ea enke - 'Mala oa liteko, litlolo tsa lik'hemik'hale, botenya bo kopaneng.
  • Ho nahana - Limaekropo, spectrometry, liteko tsa ESDA le software ea ho nka litšoantšo ka komporo.

Ho ngola ka letsoho le tokomane Litsebi fumana koetliso e batsi ea ho sekaseka ka mokhoa o hlophisehileng litšobotsi tsa ho ngola le likarolo tsa ts'ireletso tsa modem. Ba fana ka litlaleho tse qaqileng ka litlhahlobo tsa bona le liqeto tse mabapi le bonnete.

Bakeng sa mesebetsi e meholo ea bonono e jang makholo a likete kapa mesebetsi e nang le bopaki bo belaetsang, beng ba bona ba sebelisa tlhahlobo ea mahlale ho netefatsa tšimoloho le ho sibolla bokhoni. forgeries. Liteko li hlahloba lisebelisoa, litšila tsa lilemo le likarolo tse grime, litempe tsa canvas, ho ratana ha radioisotope le karolo ea infrared spectroscopy e hlahlobang likarolo tse ngata tsa pente.

Mokhoa oa ho Hlahisa Nyeoe ea Forgery Dubai ke ofe?

Haeba u belaela hore u lehlatsipa la tlolo ea molao Dubai, u ka kenya nyeoe ho Sepolesa sa Dubai. Mohato oa pele ke ho ea sepoleseng se haufi le ho kenya tletlebo ea semmuso. Itokisetse ho fana ka lintlha tse mabapi le ketsahalo eo, bopaki bofe kapa bofe boo u ka bang le bona, joalo ka litokomane kapa lintho tse ferekantsoeng, le tlhahisoleseling efe kapa efe mabapi le (ba)ba molato.

Kamora ho kenya boipelaetso, mapolesa a tla batlisisa taba eo ka botlalo. Ba ka kopa litokomane tse ling kapa bopaki ho uena, hape ba ka bitsa moqosuoa ho tla mo hloma lipotso. Ho itšetlehile ka ho rarahana ha nyeoe, ts'ebetso ea lipatlisiso e ka nka nako.

Ha mapolesa a se a bokeletse bopaki bo lekaneng, a tla fetisetsa nyeoe ho Lekhotla la Bochochisi. Joale mochochisi o tla hlahloba nyeoe ebe o etsa qeto ea hore na a qosoe kapa che. Haeba liqoso li hlahisitsoe, nyeoe e tla fetela Makhotleng a Dubai, moo e tla qosoa ho latela melao ea UAE mabapi le tlolo ea molao. Ho eletsoa ho batla moeletsi oa molao ho u tataisa tšebetsong ea boahloli.

Ramolao ea Khethehileng a ka thusa joang?

Ho tsamaisa nyeoe ea bolotsana UAE e ka ba ts'ebetso e rarahaneng le e nyarosang, ha ho nahanoa ka boemo bo tebileng ba tlolo ea molao le mathata a amehang tsamaisong ea molao ea naha. Ho batla thuso ho ’muelli oa molao ea sebetsanang ka ho khetheha le linyeoe tsa bolotsana ho ka ipaka ho le molemo haholo maemong a joalo.

'Muelli oa molao ea khethehileng o tla ba le tsebo e tebileng le kutloisiso e phethahetseng ea melao e amehang, mekhoa ea lekhotla, le litlhoko tsa bopaki tse tobane le litlolo tsa molao tsa bohata. Ba ka fana ka tataiso ea litsebi mabapi le ho aha nyeoe e matla, ho bokella le ho hlahisa bopaki ka katleho, le ho u emela ka bokhabane lekhotleng. Ho tloaelana ha bona le mefokolo ea linyeoe tse joalo ho ka ba bohlokoa ho theha maano a nepahetseng a molao.

Ho feta moo, 'muelli oa molao ea nang le boiphihlelo a ka fana ka leseli la bohlokoa mabapi le liphetho le litlamorao tsa nyeoe eo, a u nolofalletsa ho etsa liqeto tse nang le tsebo. Ba ka boela ba buisana le ba boholong molemong oa hau, ba buella litokelo tsa hau, 'me ba netefatsa hore ts'ebetso ea molao e lokile ebile e hlakile. Bokhoni ba bona ba ho sebetsana le linyeoe tse tšoanang bo ka eketsa menyetla ea hau ea ho fumana tharollo e ntle haholo.

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