Ubugebengu Bomgunyathi, Imithetho kanye nezijeziso zokuqamba e-UAE

Ukuqamba ibhekisela ebugebengwini bokukhohlisa idokhumenti, isiginesha, imali yemali, umsebenzi wobuciko, noma enye into ukuze akhohlise abanye. Kuyicala lobugebengu elibucayi elingaholela ezijezisweni ezingokomthetho ezibalulekile. Lesi sihloko sihlinzeka ngokuhlolwa okujulile kwezinhlobo ezihlukahlukene zomgunyathi eziqashelwa ngaphansi komthetho we-UAE, izinhlinzeko zomthetho ezihambisanayo, nezijeziso ezinzima ezilindele labo abatholakala benamacala anjalo.

Ithini Incazelo Yokuqamba Ngaphansi KoMthetho We-UAE?

Ukuqamba inqubo yokwenza, ukulungisa, noma ukulingisa izinto noma imibhalo ngenhloso yokukhohlisa. Kuhilela ukudala into engamanga ukuze uthole inzuzo. Lokhu kuhlanganisa ukwenza imali yomgunyathi, ukwenza imisebenzi yobuciko engelona iqiniso, ukwenza amasiginesha emaphepheni asemthethweni, ukushintsha amasheke ukuze kwebiwe imali, nokunye okukhohlisayo. imisebenzi. Ichazwa ngaphansi koMthetho Federal No. 3 ka-1987 (Ikhodi Yenhlawulo) ku-Athikili 216.

Kunezici ezimbalwa ezibalulekile ezivame ukuhlukanisa amakhophi kumakhophi noma izimpinda:

  • Inhloso yokuqola noma ukukhohlisa - Ukukhohlisa kwenziwa ngenhloso embi kunokukhiqiza kabusha okusemthethweni.
  • Ukumelwa okungamanga - Abaqambi bazothi umsebenzi wabo usemthethweni noma udalwe ngomunye umuntu.
  • Ukuguqulwa kwevelu - Izinguquko zenziwa ukwandisa inani noma ukudala inzuzo ethile.

Ezinye izibonelo ezijwayelekile zezinto eziqondiswe ngu abaqambi zihlanganisa izinkontileka, amasheke, uhlobo lwemali, imibhalo kamazisi, ama-artifact omlando, imisebenzi yobuciko, okuqoqiwe, namarekhodi omsebenzi wezezimali. Iphuzu elibalulekile ukuthi ukukhohlisa ngokuvamile kuhilela imibhalo esemthethweni esemthethweni noma amathuluzi. Akuwona wonke amarekhodi afaneleka njengawomgunyathi - yilawo afaka amarekhodi ezomthetho/emali kuphela akokotelwe ngokungemthetho.

Yiziphi Izinhlobo Ezihlukene Zokukhohlisa Okuqashelwa e-UAE?

Kunenqwaba yamasu asetshenziselwa ukudala ama-forgeries kuye ngohlobo lwento eyenziwe amanga. Izinhlobo ezijwayelekile zomgunyathi zihlanganisa:

Idokhumenti Forgery

Lokhu kuhilela ukudala amadokhumenti omgunyathi noma ukushintsha ulwazi kumadokhumenti asemthethweni ngezinhloso zokukhwabanisa. Okuhlosiwe okujwayelekile kuhlanganisa:

  • Omazisi – Amalayisense okushayela, amaphasipoti, amakhadi okuphepha komphakathi.
  • Imibhalo yezezimali - Amasheke, ama-oda okukhokha, izicelo zemalimboleko.
  • Amaphepha omthetho - Izinkontileka, izincwadi zefa, izenzo, amarekhodi abafundi.

Amasu ajwayelekile ahlanganisa umgunyathi, ukushintshwa kwekhasi, ukubeka umbhalo omusha phezu kwemibhalo yangempela, ukusula noma ukwengeza ulwazi, ukulandelela amasiginesha akweminye imibhalo.

I-Signature Forgery

Umgunyathi wesiginesha igxile kakhulu ekwenzeni amanga igama lothile elibhalwe ngesandla. Okuhlosiwe okujwayelekile kuhlanganisa:

  • Uhlola - Ukushintsha inani, igama lomuntu okhokhelwayo, noma isiginesha yekhabethe lokuqamba.
  • Imibhalo esemthethweni - Ukwenza amasiginesha kumafa, izinkontileka, amatayitela.
  • Umsebenzi wobuciko - Ukwengeza amasiginesha mbumbulu ukukhulisa inani.
  • Izinto zomlando - Ukuqamba amanga izinto ngezibalo ezidumile.

Abaqambi funda ukulingisa ngokucophelela izici ezifana nobujamo bezinhlamvu, isigqi sepeni, ukuhleleka kohlangothi kanye nokucindezela.

Umgunyathi

Umgunyathi kuhlanganisa ukwenza izifaniso zomgunyathi zezinto ezibalulekile ngenhloso yokuqola amabhizinisi nabathengi. Okuqondiwe kufaka phakathi:

  • Currency - Iningi lomgunyathi - izikweletu ezingama- $ 100 e-US. Kufika ku-$70 million ukusatshalaliswa.
  • Izimpahla zikanokusho - Izingubo zomklami, amawashi, ubucwebe buyakopishwa.
  • Amakhadi esikweletu/edebhithi - Ingaphinda ngedatha eyebiwe.
  • Amathikithi - Ukuhamba okungelona iqiniso, amathikithi omcimbi athengiswa ku-inthanethi.

Amaphrinta ayinkimbinkimbi nezici ezintsha zokuphepha zenza imigunyathi yesimanje ikholeke kakhulu.

I-Art Forgery

Umgunyathi wobuciko ibhekisela ekudaleni imisebenzi efana naleyo yamaciko adumile futhi ayidlulisele njengemidwebo yasekuqaleni noma ezibaziweyo. Izisusa zihlanganisa ukuvelela, ukuqinisekiswa, kanye nenzuzo enkulu evela kubaqoqi bezobuciko abazimisele ukukhokha izizumbulu zemali yezingcezu ezingavamile, ezilahlekile.

Abaqambi anikele iminyaka ecwaninga ngezinto zokwakha, amasu nezitayela zamaciko. Abaningi banethalente elikhulu lobuciko ngokwabo, bafunda ngokucophelela amaphethini wokushaywa unhlangothi, amaphethini okudweba, amaphethini okupenda okudweba nokuphindaphinda ama-fake angakhohlisa ochwepheshe abaphezulu.

I-Digital Media Forgery

Ukuthuthuka kwezobuchwepheshe kwenze ukuthi imidiya yedijithali iqambe amanga okuhlanganisa izithombe, ividiyo, umsindo, amawebhusayithi nokunye. Ukunyuka kwe deepfakes ibonisa amasu anamandla aqhutshwa yi-AI okudala amavidiyo mbumbulu akholisayo abantu abazenzayo noma abasho izinto abangakaze bazenze.

Amanye amasu ajwayelekile ahlanganisa izithombe ze-photoshopping, ukukhohlisa iziqeshana zomsindo, amawebhusayithi e-spoofing, ukushintsha amadokhumenti askeniwe, noma ukwenza izithombe-skrini namalogo. Lokhu kungasetshenziselwa ukunyundela, imininingwane engamanga, ukuhlasela kobugebengu bokweba imininingwane ebucayi, ukweba imininingwane yakho kanye nemikhonyovu ye-inthanethi.

Seal Forgery

I-Seal forgery uhlobo oluthile lomgunyathi obandakanya ukudalwa okungagunyaziwe, ukuphindaphinda, noma ukuguqulwa kwezigxivizo ezisemthethweni noma izitembu ezisetshenziswa izinhlangano zikahulumeni, izinhlangano, noma amabhizinisi. Lezi zimpawu zisebenza njengendlela yokuqinisekisa ubuqiniso nokuba semthethweni kwemibhalo ebalulekile, izinkontileka, izitifiketi, namanye amarekhodi asemthethweni.

Amandla adonsela phansi ama-seal fake asethubeni lawo lokubukela phansi ukwethembeka nobuqotho bale mibhalo ebalulekile. Ngokwenza izigxivizo zomgunyathi noma ngokushintsha ezikhona kakade, abenzi bobubi bangakhiqiza amadokhumenti omgunyathi abonakala eyiqiniso, okungenzeka aholele emiphumeleni engokomthetho, yezezimali, noma yesithunzi sabantu noma izinhlangano.

Uyini Umehluko Phakathi Kwenkohliso Nokungamanga?

aspectUkuqambaUkuqamba amanga
IncazeloUkudala idokhumenti engamanga, into noma ukulingisa kusukela ekuqaleni ngenhloso yokukhohlisa noma ukukhwabanisa, njengoba kuchazwe ku-Athikili 216 ye-UAE Penal Code.Ukushintsha noma ukuphazamisa idokhumenti yangempela yasekuqaleni noma into ukuze uhlanekezele amaqiniso, njengokusho kwe-Athikili 215.
IziboneloImali yomgunyathi, amadigri enyuvesi omgunyathi, umsebenzi wobuciko omgunyathi, ubunikazi bamanga noma amasiginesha.Ukushintsha imibiko esemthethweni, ukushintsha imigomo yenkontileka, ukuphinga amalebula omkhiqizo noma imininingwane.
InhlosoSula inhloso yokukhohlisa ngokudala into engamanga ngokuphelele.Inhloso yokuhlanekezela iqiniso ngokushintsha izinto zangempela.
IzijezisoUkuboshwa isikhashana kanye/noma inhlawulo. Kwabangaphandle, ukuxoshwa kungase kusebenze kwezinye izimo.Ukuvalelwa, inhlawulo kanye/noma ukudingiswa kuye ngobunzima. Harsher izikhulu zikahulumeni.
UkuhlanganaUma ukuqamba amanga kwenzeka phakathi nenqubo yokukhohlisa, womabili amacala ajeziswa ngokuhlukene.Uma ukukhohlisa kuyingxenye yenqubo yokuqamba amanga, kokubili kuthathwa njengecala elilodwa elinenhlawulo ehlanganisiwe.
IziboneloOkunye ukukhululwa kwemisebenzi yobuciko, ukubhuqa noma uma kungekho nhloso yokukhwabanisa.Kusebenza ukukhululwa okulinganiselwe.
Amanye AmacalaNgokuvamile kuxhunyaniswa nokukhwabanisa, ukusebenzisa amadokhumenti omgunyathi, njll.Kungase futhi kubandakanye ukusetshenziswa kabi kwehhovisi noma okunye ukwephulwa komthetho.

Umehluko oyinhloko ukuthi ukukhohlisa kuqala kusukela ekuqaleni ukuze kwakheke into engamanga ngokuphelele, kuyilapho ukuqamba amanga kulungisa ngenkohliso imibhalo yangempela noma izinto. Imithetho ye-UAE ibhekana womabili amacala kanzima ukuze kugcinwe ubuqotho.

Yiziphi Izijeziso Zokukhohlisa e-UAE?

Amacala omgunyathi e-UAE abhekwana nawo kanzima, futhi izinhlawulo zingaba nzima ngokusekelwe ohlotsheni lobugebengu obenziwe. Nazi izijeziso ezingaba khona zamacala omgunyathi akhethiwe:

Idokhumenti Forgery

  • Okwamadokhumende asemthethweni: Isikhathi sasejele sesikhashana singafika eminyakeni eyi-10 (I-Athikili 251 Yekhodi Yenhlawulo ye-UAE)
  • Emadokhumeni angekho emthethweni: Ukuboshwa okunqunywe yinkantolo, okunzima kakhulu kunokophulwa kwedokhumenti esemthethweni
  • Ukusebenzisa amakhophi amadokhumenti omgunyathi: Kufika eminyakeni emi-5 evalelwe (I-Athikili 217 Yekhodi Yenhlawulo ye-UAE)

I-Signature Forgery

  • Ukuphindaphinda amasiginesha kumadokhumenti kuwela ngaphansi kwesijeziso samacala okukhwabanisa kwedokhumenti

Umgunyathi

  • Imali yomgunyathi ibhekwa njengokuphazamisa kakhulu uhlelo lwezezimali
  • Kusebenza izigwebo ezinzima ezihlanganisa ukugqunywa ejele isikhathi eside kanye nezinhlawulo eziqinile

I-Art Forgery

  • Izijeziso ziyahlukahluka kuye ngevelu yomsebenzi wobuciko obunjiwe kanye nenjongo (ukukhohlisa abathengi, ukungcolisa isithunzi somculi)
  • Kungasukela ezinhlawulweni zemali kuye ekuboshweni, kuye ngokucaciswayo

I-Digital Media Forgery

  • Ngaphansi kwe-Federal Decree-Law No. 34/2021:
    • Ukwenza imibhalo ye-elekthronikhi yombuso/uhulumeni wendawo: Ijele lesikhashana kanye nenhlawulo engu-AED 150,000-750,000
    • Ukukhohlisa imibhalo yezinye izinhlangano: Inhlawulo yokuvalelwa kanye/noma i-AED 100,000-300,000

Seal Forgery

  • Kuthathwa njengengxenye yamacala okukhohlisa idokhumenti
  • Kuncike ezijezisweni ezibalulwe emacaleni obugebengu bomgunyathi

Kuyacaca ukuthi i-UAE ithatha indlela yokungabekezeleli nhlobo kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lomgunyathi, nezijeziso ezihloselwe ukuvimbela izenzo ezinjalo ezingekho emthethweni ezilulaza ubuqiniso nokwethenjwa.

Ukuvimbela Forgeries

Ukunciphisa izehlakalo zokukhwabanisa kudinga ukuvimbela okuphelele, okunezingqimba okugxile kulokhu:

Ukuvikela Amadokhumenti

  • Gcina izinto ezibucayi ngokuphephile - izisefo, amabhokisi okukhiya, amadrayivu abethelwe.
  • Khawulela ukufinyelela ngokomzimba/kwedijithali ngamahhovisi akhiyiwe, izinqubomgomo zephasiwedi.
  • Sebenzisa amakhamera wokugada, ama-alamu, abasebenzi bezokuphepha.

Ubuchwepheshe bokuqinisekisa

  • I-Biometrics - ukuqashelwa kweminwe, ubuso kanye ne-iris.
  • I-Blockchain – ileja esabalalisiwe yokuthengiselana ngedijithali.
  • Amasiginesha edijithali – izihlonzi ezibethelwe eziqinisekisa ubuqiniso.

Imfundo yomsebenzisi

  • Qeqesha abasebenzi ukuze babone ama-forgeries - bona amadokhumenti ashintshiwe, ama-watermark, izimpawu zokuqinisekisa.
  • Khuthaza imikhankaso yokuqwashisa ngokukhwabanisa echaza ubungozi nezinqubomgomo zokuvimbela.

Ukuqasha Ngokucophelela

  • Hlola ngokucophelela abasebenzi ngaphambi kokunikeza idokhumenti noma ukufinyelela kwezezimali.
  • Yenza amasheke angemuva kobugebengu, ukuhlola izikweletu, ukuqinisekisa ukuqashwa.

Amasu Okuthola Umgunyathi

Amasu amaningana e-forensic asetshenziswa abaphenyi namadokhumenti abahloli ukuthola ukuthi izinto ziyiqiniso noma ama-forgeries:

  • Ukuhlaziywa kokubhala ngesandla - Ukuqhathanisa amafonti, ama-slants, amaphethini wokushaywa unhlangothi, ingcindezi nemikhuba yokusayina.
  • Ukuhlaziywa kwephepha - Ukufunda ama-watermark, ama-logo, ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali nokuqondanisa kwe-fiber.
  • Ukuqinisekisa kukayinki - Umbala wokuhlola, ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali, ukushuba okuhlanganisiwe.
  • Ukucabanga - Imakroskopu, i-spectrometry, izivivinyo ze-ESDA kanye nesoftware yokuthwebula yekhompyutha.

Ukubhala ngesandla kanye nedokhumenti Ochwepheshe thola ukuqeqeshwa okubanzi ukuze uhlaziye ngokuhlelekile izici zokubhala nezici zokuphepha zemodemu. Banikeza imibiko enemininingwane ngezivivinyo zabo neziphetho eziphathelene nobuqiniso.

Ngemisebenzi yobuciko emikhulu ebiza amakhulu ezinkulungwane noma esebenza ngemvelaphi engabazekayo, abanikazi basebenzisa ukuhlaziya kwesayensi ukuze baqinisekise umsuka futhi bembule okungenzeka ama-forgeries. Ukuhlola ukuhlola izinto zokwakha, ukungcola kweminyaka yobudala kanye nezendlalelo ze-grime, izitembu zekhanvasi, ukuphola kwe-radioisotope kanye nengxenye ye-spectroscopy ye-infrared ehlola izingqimba eziningi zopende.

Ithini Inqubo Yokufaka Icala Lokukhohlisa e-Dubai?

Uma usola ukuthi uyisisulu somgunyathi eDubai, ungavula icala emaphoyiseni aseDubai. Isinyathelo sokuqala ukuya esiteshini samaphoyisa esiseduze uyofaka isikhalo esisemthethweni. Zilungiselele ukunikeza imininingwane mayelana nesigameko, noma yibuphi ubufakazi ongaba nabo, njengamadokhumenti omgunyathi noma izinto, kanye nanoma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana nom(aba)basolwa.

Ngemuva kokufaka isikhalo, amaphoyisa azophenya kabanzi ngalolu daba. Bangase bacele imibhalo eyengeziwe noma ubufakazi kuwe, futhi bangabiza ummangalelwa ukuze abuzwe. Ngokuya ngobunkimbinkimbi becala, inqubo yophenyo ingathatha isikhathi.

Uma amaphoyisa eseqoqe ubufakazi obanele, azodlulisela icala kwabezokushushiswa komphakathi. Umshushisi uyobe esebuyekeza icala bese enquma ukuthi uzolibeka yini icala noma cha. Uma amacala efakiwe, icala lizoqhubekela Ezinkantolo ZaseDubai, lapho lizoqulwa khona ngokuvumelana nemithetho ye-UAE mayelana nomgunyathi. Kutuswa ukuthi ufune ummeli ukuze akuqondise enqubweni yokwahlulela.

Ummeli Okhethekile angasiza kanjani?

Ukuzulazula ecaleni lomgunyathi e-UAE kungaba inqubo eyinkimbinkimbi nesabisayo, uma kubhekwa isimo esibucayi secala kanye nobunzima obuhilelekile ohlelweni lwezomthetho lwezwe. Ukufuna usizo kummeli onguchwepheshe ekusingatheni amacala omgunyathi kungaba usizo olukhulu ezimweni ezinjalo.

Ummeli oyisipesheli uzoba nolwazi olujulile kanye nokuqonda okuphelele kwemithetho efanele, izinqubo zenkantolo, kanye nezimfuneko zobufakazi eziqondene namacala omgunyathi. Banganikeza isiqondiso sochwepheshe ekwakheni icala eliqinile, ukuqoqa nokwethula ubufakazi ngempumelelo, kanye nokukumela ngendlela efanele enkantolo. Ukujwayelana kwabo nama-nuances wamacala anjalo kungaba okubalulekile ekwakheni amasu afanele omthetho.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ummeli womgunyathi onolwazi anganikeza imininingwane ebalulekile emiphumeleni engaba khona kanye nemiphumela yecala, akwenze ukwazi ukwenza izinqumo unolwazi. Bangakwazi futhi ukuxoxisana neziphathimandla egameni lakho, bamelele amalungelo akho, futhi baqinisekise ukuthi inqubo yezomthetho inobulungisa futhi isobala. Ubuchwepheshe babo ekusingatheni amacala afanayo bungakhuphula kakhulu amathuba akho okuthola isixazululo esivumayo.

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