Inkampani Yomthetho Eklonyelisiwe

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Abameli beDaily Bayulungele uMthetho Wehlukaniso e-UAE

Umshado udaba olubalulekile empilweni yomuntu, kungaba e-UAE noma kwamanye amazwe. Noma ngubani ongena kuleso sigaba sempilo unamandla okuzibeka engcupheni yenjabulo. Izidingo zokuba munye emthethweni weSharia aziceli amaphepha ajwayelekile kuphela kepha nezempilo. Izinyunyana e-UAE kufanele zifayilishwe, futhi imibhangqwana eshadile kumele iphase ukuhlolwa kwezempilo. Okubili kudingwa yi-Article 49 evuthiwe, enengqondo, futhi ebhekwe ngofakazi ababili abangamaSulumane mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwenyunyana phakathi kwemibhangqwana emibili yamaSulumane, yize ofakazi abangamaJuda nabangamaKristu belungile uma oyedwa phakathi kwalezi zithandani engumKristu noma engumJuda. Umthetho ngeke uvumele owesilisa ongumSulumane ukuthi ashade nentokazi engesiwo amaSulumane, umJuda, noma umKrestu (Artwork. 48). I-athikili efanayo iyakwenqabela abesifazane abangamaSulumane ukuthi bangashadi nabafana abangewona amaSulumane. Uma kunzima ukusiqonda lesi sigaba somthetho, thintana nabameli eDubai njengoba bengongoti ngomthetho womshado.

Umlando

Abameli e Dubai

Ngo-1968, iziphathimandla zaseBrithani zamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuvumela ukuzimela kanye neQatar neBahrain. Ababusi bezindawo eziyisishiyagalolunye bazamile ukwakha inyunyana ye-Arab Emirates kepha abakwazanga ukuvumelana maqondana nabasebenzi. IBahrain yazimela ngo-Agasti ka-1971, kwathi iQatar yazimela ngoSepthemba wangonyaka ofanayo; amanye amakhosi ayisikhombisa azimela ngokuphelele. NgoDisemba 2 wango-1971, abayisithupha babo bangena enyunyaneni eyaziwa nge-United Arab Emirates (UAE). Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngumkhandlu ovumela imithetho ehlukahlukene kazwelonke futhi udwebe izinqubomgomo ezijwayelekile abameli e-Dubai kanye namanye amadolobha ase-UAE afunde ngawo.

UMongameli washona, ngakho uKhongolose Prince, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, kanye nendodana yakhe endala baphumelela njengoMbusi wase-Abu Dhabi noMongameli.

Ngaphansi komthethosisekelo we-1971, wonke ama-emirates ayisikhombisa anombusi, futhi ngamunye uvumela amandla amakhulu, kuhlanganise nokulawula ukuthengisa, ngokuyinhloko i-petroleum ne-petroli, namalungelo amaminerali. Ngokusho komthethosisekelo, amandla kazwelonke akhula kancane eminyakeni elandela ukuzimela kwawo.

Umthetho we-UAE

Abameli e DubaiUmthetho we-UAE wawunqunywe yizimiso zomthetho zaseGibhithe kanye nomthetho ovamile wesiNgisi futhi usekelwe ezimisweni zomthetho wamaSulumane. I-emirate ngayinye ivunyelwe uMthethosisekelo we-UAE. Ngenxa yalokhu, kunezinkantolo zendawo ngaphezu kwesistimu yenkantolo kazwelonke. Ngaphandle kweRas Al Khaimah naseDaibul, abagcina izinhlelo zabo zokwahlulela, uhlelo lwama federal luhlangene namanye ama-emirates amahlanu. Naphezu kokuthi imithetho nemithetho yezomthetho ehlobene nezinkantolo kumamerica ngamunye afana kakhulu, uzothola umehluko, ikakhulukazi uma umthetho okhethekile usungulwa futhi uqaliswa emkhathini othile.

Isigaba 7 somthethosisekelo sithi I-Shariya yamaSulumane (umthetho) izosebenza njengomthombo oyinhloko womthetho e-UAE. Isigaba 94 siqinisekisa ukuzimela kwegatsha lezomthetho ngaphansi kweNkantolo Ephakeme yeNyunyana. INkantolo Ephakeme inikezwe amandla okuhlola okuhlukile ekucwaningweni kwamabhuku kukazwelonke nakwezomthetho - naphakathi kwempikiswano yangaphakathi. Umthethosisekelo ukwengeza futhi ukufaka isisekelo se- Izinkantolo Zezinyunyana ZeNkantolo Yokuqala ukuxazulula amacala obugebengu, amabhizinisi, avamile, kanye nokulawula nabameli.

Izinkantolo zaseSharia zisebenza e-UAE eceleni kwamacala enkantolo nobugebengu. Umsebenzi wayo oyinhloko uvinjelwe ezindabeni zomphakathi phakathi kwamaSulumane. Kodwa-ke, liphinde libe negunya elikhethekile lokuzwa amacala abekhona ukushada okumele kuvezwe nge abameli e-Dubai noma kusuka kwezinye izindawo. Igunya lezinkantolo ze-sharia lakhuliswa emakhanini ambalwa, kuhlanganise no-Abu Dhabi, ukuqukethe amacala amacala obugebengu obukhulu, kanye nezinye izindaba zezohwebo. Dubai ngokungezelelwe yanezela iNkantolo yaseDaily of Cassation.

UAE Yenziwe uMthetho Kazwelonke We-28

Ngo-2005, i-UAE yamisa uMthetho Kazwelonke onguNombolo 28 (kusukela manje kuqhubeke, uMthetho) wokulawula izinkinga zomshado kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-Issues of Personal Status noma i-Personal Status Law (PSL). Izinhlinzeko zoMthetho zisebenza kunoma iyiphi noma ku-Emirates yonke futhi zihlanganisa imithetho emayelana nomshado, isehlukaniso, ukunakekelwa, ukunakekelwa (i-Arab nafaqa) kanye nefa.

Isigaba 39 sidinga ukuhlanganiswa kwentombazane engaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi nesishiyagalombili ukuthi ivunyelwe unogada wesilisa. Ngaphandle kwalokho, inyunyana kungenzeka ibhekwe “njengeyize,” bese kuthi lezi zithandani zihlukaniswe. Isigaba 21 siphinde sinikeze ijaji ilungelo lokungavumeli izinyunyana lapho umkhwenyana “ephindwe kabili noma ngaphezulu” iminyaka yobudala yomlobokazi.

I- “mahr,” engaba yingxenye ebalulekile esivumelwaneni somshado wamaSulumane, ingakhokhelwa phambili (muqaddam) noma ihlehliswe (mukhtar). Nge-Article 116, izintokazi ezingakayitholi i- “mahr” (ukukhokhelwa) ngaphambi kokusondelana (ghayr al-dukhuli biha), njengoba kudingekile esivumelwaneni, angahlehliswa umshado wabo ngesicelo somthetho. Umthetho uvumela abashadayo ukuthi bahlanganise imiyalo esemthethweni egcinwe ixhumana nenkontileka ehlanganisiwe erekhodiwe. Izimfuneko ezinjalo zingathathwa njengezisekelo zokwehlukanisa noma zokuhlakazwa.

Abameli e DubaiUmthetho uchaza umshado "njengesivumelwano esivumela ukuzijabulisa (ngokusondelana) ngabalingani babo bonke ngokusemthethweni." (Artwork. 19), onhloso yakhe kungaba “ukuqinisa nokukhulisa umndeni ophephile ngaphansi kokuholwa (i-ri'ayat) kwendoda, ngezizathu zokuqinisekisa ukuthi bobabili banamandla okuhlangabezana necala labo lothando nozwelo. ” Isigaba 56 siyala ukuthi umyeni unelungelo lokulalelwa ngumkakhe “ngokwesiko.”

Isigaba 63 sithi umyeni unakekela umkakhe, kuhlanganise nokwelashwa, izingubo, ukudla, kanye nezinsizakalo. Umfazi angase alahlekelwe ngumyeni wakhe uma engalali kanye nomyeni wakhe, enqaba ukuya endlini yomshado, ehamba ekhaya, evimbela umyeni wakhe ukuba angene endlini yomshado, noma enqaba ukuhamba nomyeni wakhe, konke ngaphandle kokusebenza izizathu (I-Artwork. 71). Umthetho uchaza ukwakhiwa komndeni ngokwezinhloko zezinzalamizi ngaphansi kokugcinwa komyeni kanye nomfazi olalelayo, ukukhulisa izingane zakhe nokunakekela ikhaya lakhe.

Ukuphinga kuvinjelwe ku-UAE.

Umthetho uvumela umfana ukuthi abe namakhosikazi angaba mane ngasikhathi sinye. Unelungelo lokuhlukanisa nomkakhe noma amakhosikazi nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngokuthanda kwakhe, ngaphandle kokuphazanyiswa yinkantolo. Amantombazane, ngokuqhathanisa, kumele athole idivosi yawo ngendlela yokwahlulela. Ukuze owesifazane athole isehlukaniso sokwahlulela, kufanele akhombise ukuthi umyeni wakhe umlimazile ngokomzimba noma ngokokuziphatha, umshiye okungenani izinyanga ezintathu, noma akagcinanga i- “nafaqa:” kanye nezinye izinzuzo zemali wakhe nezingane zabo. Lobu bufakazi bungaqiniswa uma umuntu ethanda ukuqasha abameli e Dubai e-Dubai law firms. Ngaphambi kokuba lolu hlobo lwehlukaniso lutholakale enkantolo, amantombazane kulindeleke ukuthi umthetho kazwelonke adlule ngempela "ekuqondisweni" naku "kulungiswa" ku-Emirates ngayinye. Izindatshana 98 no-117 zidinga iKomidi Leziqondiso Zomndeni, lilandelwe yijaji uma kwenzeka ikomidi lingabeki “ukuphikisana” nakho. Esimweni lapho ijaji lingakwazanga ukuthola ukubuyisana, lizokwenza abanye abaxazululi ababili ukuphenya nokubuyisana esikhathini esiyizinsuku ezingamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye, noma ngabe isikhathi "singanwetshwa ngomyalelo wenkantolo," njengoba kushiwo i-Athikili 118 no-119. Inkantolo inamandla uma kwenzeka laba abedlule bengafinyeleli esinqumweni ngazwilinye ukwenza abahluleli besithathu. Umthetho ubeka izinselelo eziningi ngaphambi kokuba amantombazane afuna isehlukaniso ngezizathu zokulimala ngemuva kokuthi zonke lezi zinqubo sezisetshenzisiwe.

UMthetho uthi izimo lapho isahlukaniso singatholwa intombazane ngaphandle kokubonisa umonakalo. Isigaba 100 sivumela umfazi ukuba ahlukanise uma kwenzeka umyeni enike amandla akhe ommeli ukuba ahlukanise yena ngokwakhe. Imvume enjalo ivame ukukhulunywa ngenkontileka yomshado noma evunyelwe umyeni kumkakhe ngokusebenzisa inyunyana ngesikhathi esilandelayo.

Isigaba 110 sivumela owesifazane oshadile ukuthi ahlukanise ngokomthetho. Lokhu kusho ukuthi udela ilungelo lakhe. Inqubo yekhul idinga ukwamukelwa ngumyeni, futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe, isehlukaniso ngeke sikhishwe yinkantolo. Futhi, ngaphambi kokuba avume ukuqedwa kwenyunyana efunwa ngumkakhe, indoda idinga ukunxeshezelwa ngezezimali. Lo mthetho unikeza ukunakekelwa kwezingane zesifazane ezingaphezulu kweminyaka engu-13 nezingamaduna ezingaphezulu kweminyaka engu-11 kobaba abahlukanisile.

Kubalulekile ukuthi uqaphele ukuthi intombazane engewona umSulumane oshade nendoda yamaSulumane izolahlekelwa yisigodlo sesine izingane uma kwenzeka behlukanisa lapho befika eminyakeni emihlanu ngaphandle uma ijaji lilawula ngokwehlukile (Art 145).

Kungcono ukulalela i- iseluleko sabameli noma yimuphi ummeli we-UAE ngubani ochwepheshe kule nsimu kunokuba alalele abantu abangekho ochwepheshe emthethweni we-Sharia.

Shiya amazwana

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