Kuyadalulwa Ukushushumbiswa Kwemali: Abameli Bangawuvikela Kanjani Umcebo Wakho?

Imali ukudubula inqubo yokwenza elikhulu Izibalo ze imali- yenziwe ngokusebenzisa Ubugebengu umsebenzi ofana nokushushumbiswa kwezidakamizwa noma ukuxhasa ngezimali amaphekula—kubonakala sengathi kuvela okusemthethweni imithombo noma imisebenzi. Kuyinkinga enkulu yomhlaba wonke leyo Abameli ingadlala indima ebalulekile ekulweni.

Uhlolojikelele Lokukhwabanisa Kwemali

  • Ukuthulwa kwemali ngokuvamile kwenzeka ngezigaba ezintathu: ukubekwa, ukubeka, Futhi Ukuhlanganiswa.
  • Ngesikhathi ukubekwa, izigebengu ziqale zingenise izimali “ezingcolile” ezitholwe emisebenzini engekho emthethweni zizifaka ohlelweni lwezimali olusemthethweni. Lokhu ngokuvamile kuhilela ukuhlukana elikhulu amanani abe yizibalo ezincane okungenzeka mancane ukuthi aphakamise amafulegi abomvu.
  • In the ukubeka esigabeni, isigebengu senza imisebenzi yezezimali eyinkimbinkimbi ukuze siqhelelene nemali engekho emthethweni umthombo. Lokhu kusebenzisa izindlela ezinjengokudluliswa kwezintambo zaphesheya kwezilwandle noma ukufaka imali ngegobolondo izinkampani.
  • Ekugcineni, ngesikhathi Ukuhlanganiswa, izimali ziphinde zingene emnothweni osemthethweni ziguqulwe njenge okusemthethweni izimali zebhizinisi. Kulesi sigaba, i- Ubugebengu ikhiphe imali ngempumelelo.
  • Amasu ajwayelekile asetshenziselwa imali yokwehliswa kwemali kufaka phakathi izikimu ezisekelwe kwezohwebo, ukusetshenziswa kwamakhasino kanye nokuthengiselana kwezindlu, ukudala amagobolondo nezinkampani zangaphambili, ukunyenya, nokusebenzisa kabi izindlela zokukhokha ezintsha njenge-cryptocurrencies.
  • Isikali se imali yokwehliswa kwemali emhlabeni jikelele mkhulu. Ngokwezilinganiso ezithile, cishe amabhiliyoni angama-800 kuya ku-$2 wamatriliyoni atholwa emhlabeni wonke minyaka yonke, okwenza u-2% kuya ku-5% we-GDP yomhlaba.
  • Amabhange, ukuhwebelana ngemali, amakhasino, ama-ejensi wezindlu ezithengiswayo, ukuhwebelana nge-cryptocurrency, ngisho nabameli bangakwazi ukunika amandla ukushushumbiswa kwemali ngephutha ngokwehluleka ukwenza ukucophelela okufanele ekuthengisweni okusolisayo namakhasimende, kanye nokungazi ngezinto ezihlukahlukene. izinhlobo zokukhwabanisa ku-accounting ukuthi kube lula inqubo.

Imiphumela Yokukhwabanisela Imali

Ukwebiwa kwemali kusiza ubugebengu obuhleliwe obukhulu futhi kunemithelela emibi kakhulu emphakathini:

  • Ihlinzeka ngezimali ezibalulekile eziyingozi Ubugebengu imisebenzi efana umuthi ukuhweba, amaphekula ukuhlasela, ukuthengiselana ngezikhali, inkohlakalo, ngisho nokubulala.
  • Ukugwema ukukhokha intela kubalulekile izimali zomphakathi ezidingekayo kwingqalasizinda, imfundo, izinhlelo zokunakekelwa kwezempilo, kanye nezinye izinsiza zomphakathi.
  • Ihlanekezela kakhulu idatha yohwebo lwamazwe ngamazwe kanye nezomnotho ngokufihla umsuka nendawo okuyiwa kuyo izimali weqe imingcele.
  • Ukujovwa kwezigidigidi zamarandi alahliwe ezimakethe eziwubukhazikhazi bezindlu kukhulisa izindleko zezindlu, kubhebhethekisa ukungalingani kanye nokungabi namakhaya.
  • Ngokufihla ubunikazi babantu nokufihla ubunikazi, kusiza inkohlakalo ezinkampanini zikahulumeni, kucekele phansi ukuziphendulela, futhi kusongela ukuphepha kwezwe.

“Ukukhwabanisa imali kuyinjini yobugebengu obuhleliwe. Ngaphandle kwayo, imibuso yezigebengu emhlabeni wonke ibingawohloka.” - UJohn Cassara, uchwepheshe wokukhwabanisa imali kanye nowayeyisikhulu sezobunhloli saseMelika

Kubantu ngabanye nezinkampani ezibanjwe zivumela ukuxhaphaza imali, noma ngabe bazi noma bengazi, imiphumela nayo mibi kakhulu:

  • Izijeziso zezezimali eziqinile ngokuvamile ezigidini zamadola ngokwehluleka okuhlelekile kuzilawuli ze-AML.
  • ezinzima ukulimala kwesithunzi kubo bobabili abantu kanye nezikhungo zezezimali ezithintekayo.
  • Ukuqandisa okungaba khona noma ukudliwa kwanoma yiziphi izimpahla ezilandelelwa emalini etholwa ngokungemthetho.
  • Izigwebo ezinde ejele ekugwetshweni kwecala lokushushumbisa imali noma amacala ezezimali ahlobene.

Imithetho Yokulwa Nokungeniswa Kwemali (AML).

Ukuze kuliwe nale nkinga enkulu neyingozi, amazwe amaningi anemithetho ebanzi nama-ejensi agxile ekutholeni nasekuvimbeleni ukuxhashazwa kwemali:

I-United Arab Emirates inohlaka lwezomthetho oluqinile lokulwa nokuxhashazwa kwemali, ehambisana nezindinganiso zamazwe ngamazwe, ikakhulukazi izincomo ze-Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Umthetho we-AML (Federal Decree-Law No. 20 of 2018): Lona umthetho oyinhloko we-AML e-UAE. Ichaza amacala okushushumbisa imali futhi ibeka uhlaka olusemthethweni lokuvimbela nokujeziswa kwemisebenzi yokukhwabanisa imali. Lo mthetho uhlanganisa amacala amaningi e-predicate (ubugebengu obuyisisekelo obukhiqiza izimali ezingekho emthethweni) futhi usebenza ezinhlakeni eziningi, okuhlanganisa izikhungo zezezimali, amabhizinisi aqokiwe angewona awezezimali kanye nobungcweti, kanye nezinhlangano ezingenzi nzuzo.

Iziqondiso zeBhange Elikhulu: I-UAE Central Bank ikhiphela izikhungo zezezimali iziqondiso ezinemininingwane namasekhula, ihlinzeka ngohlaka lokukhuthala okufanele kwamakhasimende, ukuqapha okwenziwayo, kanye nokubika imisebenzi esolisayo. Izikhungo zezezimali kudingeka ukuthi zisungule izinqubo zangaphakathi kanye nezinhlelo zokulawula ukuze zithole futhi zibike izenzo ezisolisayo.

Ukubika Okwenziwayo Okusolisayo: Amabhizinisi kudingeka ukuthi abike ngokushesha noma yimiphi imisebenzi esolwa ngokuxhaphaza imali ku-UAE Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU). I-FIU isebenza ngaphansi kweBhange Elikhulu futhi inesibopho sokwamukela, ukuhlaziya, nokusabalalisa ulwazi oluhlobene nokushushumbiswa kwemali okungaba khona noma uxhaso lwamaphekula.

Ukubambisana Kwamazwe Ngamazwe: I-UAE ibamba iqhaza ngokugcwele emizamweni yamazwe ngamazwe yokulwa nokushushumbiswa kwemali kanye noxhaso lwamaphekula. Igunyaze izivumelwano zamazwe ngamazwe eziningana futhi iyilungu le-Gulf Cooperation Council's Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism Commission.

Izinhlawulo Nokuphoqelela: Umthetho we-AML ubeka izinhlawulo eziqinile zamacala okushushumbisa imali, okuhlanganisa izinhlawulo nokuboshwa. Amajaji e-UAE kanye nezikhungo zomthetho zinikezwe amandla okuphenya nokushushisa amacala okushushumbisa imali.

Ukuqapha Nokuhambisana Okuqhubekayo: Izikhungo zezezimali nezinye izinhlangano ezinesibopho kufanele ziqhube ukuqapha okuqhubekayo kobudlelwano bazo bebhizinisi futhi zenze ukunakekelwa okufanele okuthuthukisiwe lapho kutholakala khona ubungozi obuphakeme.

Ukuhlolwa Nokuphathwa Kwengozi: Amabhizinisi kudingeka enze ukuhlolwa kwengcuphe njalo ukuze aqonde futhi alawule ukuchayeka kwawo ekukhwabaniseni imali kanye nezingozi zoxhaso lwamaphekula.

Ukuqeqeshwa Nokuqwashisa: Izinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezivamile zigunyazwe kubasebenzi bezikhungo zezezimali nezingezona ezezezimali ukuze baqinisekise ukuthi bayazi imithetho ye-AML futhi bangakwazi ukuhlonza futhi babike imisebenzi esolisayo.

Izibonelo zangempela zezenzo zokuphoqelela e-UAE zibonisa ukuzibophezela kwezwe ekulweni nokushushumbiswa kwemali. Isibonelo, i-UAE ibone amacala aphezulu lapho izikhungo zezimali zahlawuliswa ngokungathobeli imithetho ye-AML.

Imithetho ye-AML ye-UAE ibanzi futhi yakhelwe ukuvimbela, ukuhlonza, nokushushisa imisebenzi yokukhwabanisa imali. Zikhombisa ukuzibophezela kwezwe ekugcineni ubuqotho besistimu yalo yezezimali kanye nokuma kwalo emphakathini wamazwe ngamazwe.

Kodwa-ke, ngenxa yokwanda kwenkimbinkimbi yezinhlelo zokushushumbiswa kwemali, kusenezikhala ezinkulu zokulawula abameli abangasiza ukuzigcwalisa ngokuqwashisa ngendlela efanele kanye nokulawulwa kobungozi okumatasa.

Ummeli Wokukhwabanisela Imali Uhlinzeka Ngezinsizakalo Zezomthetho Ezibalulekile Ezihlobene Namacala Ezezimali Ayinkimbinkimbi

Ukukhwabanisa kwemali kuhilela ukufihla izimali ezingekho emthethweni noma ukuzenza zibonakale zisemthethweni ngokusebenzisa izinto eziyinkimbinkimbi. Ivumela izigebengu ukuthi zifihle futhi zisebenzise inzuzo etholakala emisebenzini engekho emthethweni njengokukhwabanisa, ukubalekela intela, noma uxhaso lwamaphekula. Njengokukhwabanisela imali emhlabeni jikelele (I-AML) iziqondiso ziyaqina, amabhizinisi kanye nabantu ngabanye babhekana nezijeziso ezinzima ngokungalandeli noma ukuzibandakanya ngokuqondile ezinhlelweni zokukhwabanisa imali. Kulesi simo, izinsizakalo zochwepheshe bezomthetho abakhethekile zibaluleke kakhulu.

Abameli abantshontsha imali banolwazi lochwepheshe lwemithetho nemithethonqubo eyinkimbinkimbi elawula inkimbinkimbi ubugebengu bezezimali e-UAE. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi bamele amaklayenti abhekene nezindleko noma banikeze iseluleko sokulandela ngokuqhubekayo, basebenzisa izinhlobonhlobo zezinsizakalo ezibalulekile. Lokhu kuhlanganisa ukuqondisa amaklayenti ngophenyo, ukwakha ukuzivikela okuqinile kwezomthetho, nokuvumelanisa izinqubo ze-AML nokulindelwe okuqinile kokulawula.

Kusebenza Izinhlawulo Eziqinile Zomthetho

Abantu abalahlwe amacala okushushumbisa imali babhekene nemiphumela emibi kakhulu emhlabeni jikelele. Izijeziso ziyahlukahluka kuzo zonke izindawo kodwa ngokuvamile zihlanganisa:

  • Izijeziso zezimali ezinkulu ezifika ngokuphindwe kabili inani lemali entshontshiwe.
  • Qedela ifa ukudliwa okuhlanganisa impahla, izimoto, amabhizinisi, nezimali ze-akhawunti yasebhange.
  • Iminyaka yokugqunywa ejele kuye ngezinto ezifana nenani elikhishiwe kanye nomlando wobugebengu.

Emabhizinisini, imiphumela ihlanganisa izinhlawulo ezinzima, amalayisense okusebenza ahoxisiwe, izinkampani ezihlakaziwe, kanye nesikweletu somuntu ngamunye sabaqondisi abathobelayo. Ukwazi ukwenza lula ukushushumbiswa kwemali nakho kuholela ekujuleni ukulimala kwesithunzi. Ngamakhono athuthukile okulandela umkhondo wezezimali, abashushisi bathola ukwethulwa kwamacala ngokuya kwenzeka.

“Ukuthula kwabo kuyisikhali sabo, ubumfihlo bekhasimende labo yisihlangu ebulungiswa.” – Ijaji eliphethe icala lokushushumbisa imali

Kungani Ukumelela Okusemthethweni Kubalulekile

Ukuzulazula ophenyweni lokushushumbiswa kwemali kanye namacala ngaphandle kokuzivikela kwezomthetho kochwepheshe kuyingozi kakhulu. Ngokusho kommeli we-UAE u-Advocate [[Hassan Elhais]], “isinyathelo sokuqala esiphusile ukuxoxisana nochwepheshe wezomthetho okhethekile”. Ukuqonda kwabo okujulile imithethonqubo yokuthotshelwa kwezimali kubonakala kuwusizo kakhulu. Baphinde bahlinzeke:

Impendulo Esheshayo Yophenyo

  • Lapho iziphathimandla seziqale imibuzo, abameli abaxhumana ngokushesha kusiza ukulandisa okuxoxayo babuze ukufaneleka kwamacala ngesikhathi sezigaba zokuqala.

Ukuhlola Ubufakazi

  • Ukuhlola ngokugcwele ubufakazi bokushushiswa kwembula ukungqubuzana ukuze amacala angasebenzi. Ngaphandle kokuhlaziywa komthetho ngokushesha ngemva kokubanjwa, izimpahla ezisekela amabhizinisi nezindlela zokuziphilisa ngokuvamile zihlala zimile.

Ukuncenga Abashushisi

  • Abameli abanekhono baxoxisana nabashushisi, begqamisa ubuthakathaka bobufakazi futhi babaqondise ekuhoxisweni kwamacala noma ekwehliseni izijeziso.

Inkantolo Yezokuvikela

  • Bavikela amakhasimende kanzima enkantolo ngokuwahlasela ngokomthetho amacala uma amacala eqhubeka. Lokhu kuhilela ukuphikisana ngokuphelele nobuqiniso obungabazekayo.

Isiqondiso Esisebenzayo Ngezibopho ze-AML

Ngaphezu kokuzivikela okuqinile kobugebengu, abameli abashushumbisa imali banikeza isiqondiso esisebenzayo mayelana nemisebenzi yezomthetho emayelana nemithetho eyinkimbinkimbi. Baletha izeluleko ezihambisanayo kanye nemikhuba emihle yokuthobela ukuze kutholwe futhi kuvinjwe ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni kweziteshi ezisemthethweni. Izinto ezijwayelekile zifaka:

  • Ukwenza ngokwezifiso izinqubo zokubika ze-AML, ukucwaningwa kwamabhuku kwangaphakathi kanye nezinqubo zokukhuthala ezihambisana nezakamuva FATF isiqondiso.
  • Abasebenzi abaqeqeshelwa ukuhlonza nokubika ngokushesha ukuthengiselana okusolisayo ngama-SAR kanye neminye imigudu yokudalula okuyisibopho.
  • Ukuqinisekisa ngezikhathi ezithile izinqubo ze-KYC kuqinisekisa izinqubo zokuhlola amaklayenti landisa ngezinguquko ezikhonjiwe izingozi zokukhwabanisa imali kanye nezinhlobo.

Izindawo Zochwepheshe ezengeziwe

Ngolwazi oluyinkimbinkimbi lwezobuchwepheshe nolwazi lwezomthetho, abameli abashushumbisa imali nabo basiza ngezindawo ezengeziwe:

  • Usizo lokutholwa kwempahla ngemuva kokuqunjelwa noma ukuqunjelwa ngecala.
  • Kuyakhanga izinhlawulo zokulawula futhi unswinyo lokuphatha ngokugqamisa amaphutha enqubo kanye nokubhala izivumelwano zokukhokhelana.
  • Ukuvikela izicelo zokubuyiselwa kanye nokweluleka izinqubo zokubambisana kwamazwe ngamazwe ophenyweni olunqamula imingcele oluhlanganisa amazwe amaningi.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwe-forensic kwama-akhawunti, izinkontileka kanye nokuhwebelana ukuze kunqunywe i-clawback noma izinketho zokuphuma lapho kuvulwa izimali zabatshalizimali ezingekho emthethweni.

Ukukhetha Umeluleki Ofanele Wezomthetho

Ngobuchwepheshe obukhethekile bezezimali nezomthetho obudingeka kakhulu kangaka, ukukhuthala ngokucophelela ekukhetheni abeluleki kuwukuhlakanipha ngokuhambisana nemingcele efana namazinga okuhlangenwe nakho okusingatha amacala e-AML emikhakheni ethize, izinhlaka zezindleko, kanye namarekhodi ethrekhi ewonke athola imiphumela emihle.

Abameli abashushumbiswa ngemali bahlinzeka ngosizo olukhethekile, ubuchwepheshe obusebenzisekayo obucijiswe ngokuchayeka kwamacala amaningi nokuqeqeshwa. Ngokweluleka amaklayenti nokuhlaziya okwenziwayo okuyinkimbinkimbi, afeza umsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu - ukucacisa izibopho kanye nemikhawulo yamabhizinisi kuyilapho amalungelo omuntu evikelekile evikelekile. Amakhono abo okuvikela noma ukushushisa izinsolo zobugebengu bezezimali nawo anomthelela omkhulu emiphumeleni yalabo abasolwa.

Sekukonke ezindaweni ezinamazinga okulawula ashintsha njalo kanye nezikweletu ezikhulayo zenhlawulo, ukugcina abeluleki bezomthetho abathembekile ekuthobeleni imali kanye nezindaba ezihlobene nokushushumbiswa kwemali kuhlala kubaluleke kakhulu.

Skrolela Top