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Ungawusebenzisa Kanjani Umthetho Wokulamula e-UAE Ukuvikela Amalungelo Akho?

Umthetho Wokulamula Kahulumeni E-UAE

Umthetho Wokulamula e-UAE

abameli bokulamula e-UAE

Bathi ukulamula kusetshenziswe amakhulu eminyaka, eminye yemibhalo kaPlato ngale ndaba isekhona kuze kube namuhla. EMpumalanga Ephakathi yanamuhla, izazi-mlando zibuye zilandele umkhuba wokulamula kuze kube sezinsukwini zokuqala zobuSulumane. Esinye isitembu sesikhathi eselulekela emuva sikhomba ekusetshenzisweni kokulamula kweNkosi uSolomoni odumile. 

Siyazi ngokuqinisekile ukuthi “Ukulamula” kwanamuhla kwenziwa ngokusemthethweni njengenye indlela yokuxazulula izingxabano lapho iPhalamende laseBrithani lishaya umthetho ngo-1697. Nokuthi irekhodi lokuqala leli gama ngokwalo lalinguShakespeare, ku- “Troilus” yakhe emuva 1602. Ngenkathi igama lingakashintshi, kubonakala inhloso elimele yona nento eliyiphethe iyaguquka. 

Isimo sokulamula njengendlela yokuqala yokuxazulula izingxabano eziyinkimbinkimbi, ezentengiselwano nezamazwe omhlaba akusimangazi - sime njengenye indlela evivinywayo yezinkantolo. Ukubambisana kuyindlela ethandwa kakhulu yokuxazulula izingxabano yebhizinisi ezindaweni eziyinhloko zokuhweba njenge-UAE. Okuncamelayo kungenxa yokuthi kunikeza izinzuzo eziningana ngaphezulu kwamacala endabuko ngenxa yejubane lawo, imfihlo, nokuguquguquka kwawo.
Uma noma yini enye ibonakele, ngukuthi akusiyo kuphela izingxabano zebhizinisi ezibangelwa amalungiselelo okuhweba. Ukwephulwa kwamalungelo abantu kujwayelekile futhi. Ngeshwa, ukuphoqelela amalungelo omuntu ngamunye ngokumelene nokuhlukunyezwa yizinkampani ngokusebenzisa amacala wendabuko kuyinkqubo ebucayi. Ngenhlanhla, lokho kubukeka kuzoshintsha, ngenxa yokuthuthuka okusha kokulamula.

Ukubambisana "Namalungelo?"

Imvamisa, ukuvikela amalungelo akho esintu, kufanele uye ezinkantolo. Njengoba sonke sazi, le yinqubo ehamba kancane futhi edla isikhathi. Ngokujabulisayo, ungaphoqelela amalungelo akho ngokulamula ngaphandle kokudinga ukungena ezindongeni ezine zenkantolo yomthetho.

Ukuqonda ukuthi lokhu kungenzeka kanjani, kungcono ukuqala ngokufika kweBusiness and Human Rights Arbitration ngo-2013. Ngalowo nyaka, i Inkantolo Ephakeme Yase-US ikhiphe isinqumo ukuthi i-US Alien Tort Statute ka-1789 ayisebenzi ngaphandle kwe-United States. Lesi sinqumo sanciphisa izisulu zokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu yizinkampani ukufinyelela ezinkantolo zase-US ukuthola ukulungiswa kwezinsolo zokuphulwa kwamalungelo.

Ngenxa yalesi sikhundla, kwavela kokujwayelekile ukuthi ukulamula kungaba enye indlela yokuxazulula izingxabano ezinkampanini nabanamalungelo okuxazulula izingxabano. Okuqondisa lo mngcele omusha yi-Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration (BHA) ("the Rules on Human Rights Arbitration"), eyethulwe ngomhlaka 20th kaDisemba, 2020.

Imithetho "inikeza izinqubo eziningi zokuxazulula izingxabano ezihlobene nomthelela wemisebenzi yebhizinisi kumalungelo abantu." Lokhu kuvumela amazwe, izinhlangano ezinkampani, nabantu ngabanye ukuba baxazulule izingxabano nezinkampani kanye nabalingani bebhizinisi ngaphambi kwenkantolo yamazwe omhlaba.

Indawo Yokulamula e-UAE.

I-UAE ithatha inkokhelo emhlabeni wonke uma kukhulunywa ngokulamula. Eminyakeni engu-5 edlule, i-UAE ithathe indawo ephambili njengesihlalo sokulamula okubandakanya izinkampani zezentengiselwano nezentengiselwano ezinze eMpumalanga Yurophu, e-Afrika nase-Asia.

Sibonile ukuvela kwezikhungo ezisezingeni lomhlaba ezinemithetho yesimanje esekwe ezinhlelweni zomhlaba wonke ezihamba phambili. Ngenxa yomthetho ojwayelekile we-Arbitration Law (Federal Law No. 6/2018) kanye nesimo seqembu eNew York nakweminye imihlangano yesifunda, i-UAE isebenzisa amandla ayo ukuphatha ukubambana kwamazwe ngamazwe ngokuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu.

Ukumiswa komthetho we-Federal Arbitration ngonyaka we-2018 kuguqulwe ngempumelelo i-Arbitrations e-UAE, kufaka phakathi ngokubanzi i-UNCITRAL Model. Ngenxa yoMthetho, ukulamula e-UAE kuvunyelwe kakhulu ngoba kunikeza amaqembu amandla amakhulu nokuguquguquka ekunqumeni izinqubo ze-arbitral.

Ngokwengeziwe, ibuye isungule amandla abaHluleli ukuthi banikeze izinyathelo zesikhashana futhi benze ama-oda okuqala. Lokhu kubaluleke kakhulu lapho uzama ukuxazulula icala elibandakanya ukwephulwa kwamalungelo abantu.

Ukuvikela Amalungelo Akho nge-UAE Arbitration Law

Imiphumela yemisebenzi yebhizinisi kumalungelo esintu yenzeka ngezindlela eziningi futhi ibhalwe kahle. Isibonelo, imisebenzi yenkampani nosonkontileka bayo ingathinta ngqo izimo zezemvelo futhi ifake engcupheni imiphakathi yonke.

Kwesinye isikhathi, le mithelela nayo ayiqondile, ivela ezenzweni zabahlinzeki nabalingani bebhizinisi ekuthengisweni kwabo. Sekukonke, izinkampani ngokusebenzisa okulandelayo:

  • Ukungcoliswa kwemvelo nezingozi, ukwehluleka kwezempilo nokuphepha okuholela ekulimaleni kwempilo yabantu,
  • Sebenza ezimeni ezingaphephile noma ezingenampilo,
  • Ukuqashwa ngenkani noma kwengane, kanye nokukhokhelwa kancane kwabasebenzi;
  • Ukufuduka okungazibandakanyi noma okuphoqelelwe kwemiphakathi,
  • Ukuthunyelwa kwamandla ngokweqile kubasebenzi ngonogada abavikela izimpahla;
  • Ukucwaswa kwabasebenzi, isibonelo, ngobuhlanga, ubulili, noma ubulili;
  • Ukuqedwa noma ukungcoliswa kwemithombo yamanzi lapho imiphakathi yasendaweni incike khona.

Lezi yizibonelo nje, futhi uhla lwezinkinga ezingaba yindaba yamalungelo abantu ahlobene nebhizinisi luhlala lubanzi kakhulu. 

Njengomthetho ojwayelekile, ukusebenzisa ukulamula ukuxazulula impikiswano yenkontileka kungenzeka kuphela lapho amaqembu abandakanyekayo evuma ukulamula. Ngakho-ke, ezingxabanweni phakathi kwenkampani nomhlinzeki wayo, isivumelwano sokulamula sifakwa esivumelwaneni sokunikezela.

Lapho udaba lungaveli ekwephulweni kwenkontileka, amaqembu ahambisa kuphela ingxabano yawo ekulamulaneni ngesivumelwano sokuhambisa.

Ngakho-ke, ngezindaba zamalungelo abantu ezihlobene nebhizinisi, kulandela ukuthi indlela yokusungula imvume kungaba ngokufaka isigatshana sokulamula esivumelwaneni samazwe amaningi sokuvikelwa kwamalungelo abantu.

Lokhu yilokho okusetshenziswa kakhulu namuhla. Isibonelo esisodwa salokhu yi-Accord on Fire and Building Safety eBangladesh.

Isayinwe ngemuva kokuwa kwebhilidi iRana Plaza ngomhla zingama-24 ku-Ephreli 2013 (eyabulala yalimaza kanzima izinkulungwane zabasebenzi), isivumelwano senziwa ukusungula uhlelo lokuphepha komlilo nokwakha abasebenzi abasembonini yezindwangu eBangladesh. Abasayina ku-Accord bafaka ngaphezu kwama-200 brand global, abangenisa impahla ngaphakathi, kanye nabathengisi emazweni angama-20 kumazwekazi amane.

Akucaci ukuthi abantu bangakwazi yini ukuqala ukulamula ngqo. Isibonelo, amaqembu eSivumelwano saseBangladeshi futhi okungenzeka ukuthi amanye afana nawo yizinyunyana zabasebenzi nezinkampani. Ngenxa yalokhu, abasebenzi abakwazi ukuqala ukulamula ngaphansi kwayo ngqo. Kunalokho bafaka noma yiziphi izikhalazo ngempilo nokuphepha ngenqubo esungulwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi ukulamula okubili okwephulwa kwamalungelo abantu sekuvele ngaphansi kwezivumelwano kuze kube manje. Kuzo zombili lezi zikhathi, amaqembu abhekise ekuxazululeni, futhi izinkantolo zombili zokulamula zakhipha imiyalo yokuqeda.

Abameli Ababhekele Ukulamula e-UAE

Okusha okulethwe ngumthetho we-UAE we-2018 Arbitration Law kunikeza ukucaciseleka okukhudlwana nokuqiniseka kweBusiness and arbitration rights. Ukubuyekezwa kwakha indawo yokuguquguquka okukhulu ngendlela okwenziwa ngayo ukulamula okujwayelekile.

Ama-Amal Khamis Advocates agxile kakhulu ekubhalweni kwezivumelwano zokulamula ezentengiselwano nezotshalomali, kanye nokumelela amaklayenti kuzinqubo zokulamula zomhlaba wonke. Abameli bethu abanolwazi lokulamula bayibhuloho lakho ekuvikeleni amalungelo akho noma ekutholeni amakhambi nganoma yikuphi ukwephulwa. Ukusebenza kwethu ekuxazululeni izingxabano kusivumela ukuthi sisebenzise ngokugcwele umthetho lapho sisiza ukwenza ukulamula kwakho.

Uma udinga ukuxazulula impikiswano e-UAE, kungenzeka ukuthi usebenzise inqubo yokulamula. Lokhu, ngemuva kwakho konke, itshe legumbi lomthetho we-UAE. Ekulameni, umuntu wesithathu ongathathi hlangothi uzonquma futhi axazulule impikiswano. Sixazulula izinkinga zomthetho eziyinkimbinkimbi nezinqamula imigwaqo ezindaweni eziningi zokuzijwayeza. Isiko lethu elihlukile lisenza sikwazi ukuqonda izimakethe zasendaweni futhi sizulazule ezindaweni eziningi. Singomunye wamafemu omthetho wokulamula kahle e-UAE. Xhumana nathi namuhla!

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