Duit Laundering atanapi Hawala di UAE, Hukum & Hukuman

How are Hawala and Money Laundering defined under UAE Laws?

According to the UAE’s legal and regulatory framework, Hawala and Money Laundering are defined as follows:

Hawala: The UAE Central Bank defines Hawala as an informal money transfer system that operates outside of conventional banking channels. It involves the transfer of funds from one location to another through service providers known as “hawaladars” without any physical movement of currency.

Money Laundering: Money Laundering is a criminal offense under UAE Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. It is defined as the process of concealing or disguising the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement, or ownership of funds or assets derived from illegal activities.

Conto umum nyaéta: structuring/smurfing, shell companies, real estate transactions, trade-based laundering, casino operations, cryptocurrency transactions, bulk cash smuggling, and misusing Hawala networks.

The UAE takes a strong stance against these activities, and the legal consequences for individuals or entities involved in Hawala or Money Laundering can be severe. It is crucial to comply with the UAE’s anti-money laundering regulations and conduct financial transactions through legitimate and authorized channels.

When is Hawala Legal or Illegal in the UAE?

Hawala, the informal money transfer system, is not inherently illegal in the UAE. However, it is an unregulated and informal channel, which can potentially be exploited for illicit activities, including money laundering and financing of terrorism. The legality of Hawala transactions in the UAE depends on the source of funds and the intended purpose.

If Hawala is used to transfer funds derived from legal sources and for legitimate purposes, it may be considered legal. However, if it is utilized to transfer funds obtained through illegal means or for unlawful activities, such as money laundering, terrorism financing, or tax evasion, it becomes illegal under UAE laws. Authorities closely monitor Hawala networks to ensure compliance with anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing regulations.

It’s important to note that while Hawala itself is not illegal, the UAE has strict regulations in place to combat the misuse of informal money transfer systems for illicit purposes. Individuals and businesses are advised to exercise caution and conduct financial transactions through licensed and regulated channels to avoid potential legal consequences.

Types of Money Laundering cases in the UAE

The UAE has witnessed various types of money laundering cases involving individuals and entities engaged in illicit activities. Here are some common types of money laundering cases observed in the UAE:

  1. Real Estate-Related Money Laundering: This involves the purchase and sale of properties using funds derived from illegal sources, such as drug trafficking, fraud, or corruption.
  2. Trade-Based Money Laundering: This type of laundering involves the misrepresentation of the price, quantity, or quality of goods in import/export transactions to move illicit funds across borders.
  3. Bulk Cash Smuggling: This involves the physical transportation of large amounts of cash across borders, often concealed in vehicles, luggage, or other means, to evade reporting requirements and disguise the source of funds.
  4. Shell Company-based Money Laundering: In this type of case, individuals or organizations establish fake or shell companies to disguise the true ownership and source of funds, and provide a legitimate-appearing cover for illicit transactions.
  5. Misuse of Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS) like Hawala: Certain cases involve the exploitation of informal money transfer systems like Hawala to move illicit funds globally, taking advantage of the lack of a traditional financial trail.
  6. Cryptocurrency-based Money Laundering: With the increasing use of cryptocurrencies, some cases involve the use of digital assets to conceal the movement and origin of illegal funds, exploiting the anonymity and decentralized nature of these transactions.
  7. Laundering through Casinos and Gaming Establishments: In some instances, casinos and gaming establishments have been used to exchange large amounts of cash for chips or other monetary instruments, effectively disguising the source of the funds.

It’s worth noting that money laundering schemes can be complex and evolve over time, often involving a combination of different methods and channels. Effective anti-money laundering measures, robust regulatory frameworks, and international cooperation are crucial in combating these criminal activities in the UAE.

What is the Anti Money Laundering Law in UAE?

The Anti-Money Laundering Law in the UAE is governed by Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. This comprehensive law defines and criminalizes money laundering activities, outlines strict measures to combat terrorism financing, and establishes a robust regulatory framework.

The key aspects of the Anti-Money Laundering Law in the UAE include:

  1. Definition of Money Laundering: Clearly defines money laundering as concealing or disguising funds derived from illegal activities.
  2. Kawajiban ngalaporkeun: Requires financial institutions and businesses to implement AML/CFT measures, including customer due diligence, transaction monitoring, and reporting suspicious activities.
  3. Penalties and Sanctions: Imposes severe penalties, including fines and imprisonment, for non-compliance.
  4. Competent Authorities: Mandates the establishment of authorities like the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) to oversee AML/CFT efforts.
  5. Kerjasama Internasional: Facilitates cooperation and information sharing with other countries in the fight against money laundering and terrorism financing.

What are the Maximum Penalties for Money Laundering Convictions in the UAE?

The UAE’s Anti-Money Laundering Law imposes severe penalties for individuals and entities convicted of money laundering offenses. The maximum penalties for money laundering convictions in the UAE are as follows:

  1. panjara:
    • For individuals: Up to 10 years in prison.
    • For managers or representatives of legal entities: Up to 15 years in prison.
  2. Denda:
    • For individuals: A fine not exceeding AED 5 million (approximately $1.36 million).
    • For legal entities: A fine not exceeding AED 50 million (approximately $13.6 million).

In addition to these penalties, the convicted individuals or entities may also face:

  • Confiscation of funds, properties, or instrumentalities related to the money laundering offense.
  • Dissolution or temporary or permanent closure of the legal entity involved in the offense.
  • Publication of the court’s judgment in two local daily newspapers at the expense of the convicted party.

It’s important to note that these penalties represent the maximum punishments prescribed by the law. The actual sentence may vary depending on the specific circumstances of the case, the severity of the offense, and other mitigating or aggravating factors.

The UAE takes a strict stance against money laundering activities, and these severe penalties reflect the country’s commitment to deterring and combating financial crimes within its jurisdiction.

Are there any Special Provisions for Money Laundering linked to Organized Crime or Terrorism Financing?

Yes, the UAE’s Anti-Money Laundering Law includes special provisions for money laundering offenses linked to organized crime or terrorism financing:

  1. Harsher Penalties for Organized Crime: If a money laundering offense is committed within the framework of an organized criminal group, the maximum imprisonment penalty shall be increased by a specified proportion.
  2. Criminalizing Terrorism Financing: The law criminalizes the financing of terrorism and terrorist organizations. Any person who willfully collects, transfers, or provides funds or property with the intention of using them for terrorist activities can face lengthy imprisonment and substantial fines.
  3. Kerjasama Internasional: The law facilitates international cooperation and information sharing with other countries and jurisdictions in combating money laundering, organized crime, and terrorism financing. This includes provisions for extradition and mutual legal assistance.
  4. Targeted Financial Sanctions: The UAE has implemented targeted financial sanctions against individuals and entities designated by the United Nations Security Council or other relevant international organizations as being involved in terrorism financing or associated with terrorist organizations.

These special provisions underscore the UAE’s commitment to combating the financing of terrorism and organized crime, which pose significant threats to national and global security. The severe penalties and enhanced international cooperation measures aim to disrupt and dismantle these illegal activities and their financial networks.

Key AML Compliance Requirements for Businesses in UAE

The UAE’s Anti-Money Laundering Law imposes several compliance requirements on businesses operating within the country. Here are the key AML compliance requirements for businesses in the UAE:

  1. daptaran: Mandatory registration with goAML portal for FIs and DNFBPs.
  2. Patugas Kepatuhan AML: Appoint a dedicated officer to oversee AML program.
  3. AML Program: Establish comprehensive policies and procedures for KYC, transaction monitoring, risk management, and reporting.
  4. Risk-Based Approach: Tailor AML program to business size, nature, and inherent risks.
  5. Rajin Pelanggan Kusabab (CDD): Conduct thorough KYC checks, including identity verification and beneficial ownership identification.
  6. Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD): Apply additional measures for higher-risk customers like PEPs.
  7. Pangimeutan Transaksi: Monitor transactions for suspicious activities.
  8. Suspicious Activity Reporting: Report suspicious transactions to Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU).
  9. Rékam-Ngajaga: Maintain customer and transaction records for at least 5 years.
  10. Pelatihan Karyawan: Provide regular AML/CFT training to employees.
  11. Audit Independen: Conduct regular audits of AML/CFT program.
  12. Kerjasama jeung Otoritas: Cooperate with authorities and provide required information.

Failure to comply with these requirements can result in severe penalties, including fines, imprisonment, and potential revocation of licenses or business closure. Businesses operating in the UAE must prioritize AML compliance to mitigate risks and maintain the integrity of the financial system.

Naon Dupi Beureum Bandéra dina AML?

Bandéra beureum ngarujuk kana indikator anu teu biasa anu nunjukkeun kagiatan anu berpotensi ilegal anu peryogi panalungtikan salajengna. Umbul beureum AML umum aya hubunganana sareng:

Paripolah Palanggan anu curiga

  • Rahasia ngeunaan identitas atanapi henteu daék masihan inpormasi
  • Horéam nyadiakeun rinci ngeunaan alam jeung tujuan bisnis
  • Parobahan anu sering sareng teu dijelaskeun dina ngaidentipikasi inpormasi
  • Usaha curiga pikeun nyingkahan syarat ngalaporkeun

Transaksi Résiko Tinggi

  • Pangmayaran tunai signifikan tanpa asal jelas dana
  • Transaksi sareng éntitas dina yurisdiksi résiko luhur
  • Struktur deal kompléks masking kapamilikan mangpaat
  • Ukuran abnormal atawa frékuénsi pikeun profil customer

Kaayaan Teu Biasa

  • Transaksi kurang katerangan wajar / alesan ékonomi
  • Inconsistencies sareng kagiatan biasa palanggan
  • Teu wawuh sareng detil transaksi anu dilakukeun atas nama hiji

Bandéra Beureum dina Kontéks UAE

UAE nyanghareupan husus resiko laundering duit ti sirkulasi tunai tinggi, dagang emas, Transaksi real estate jsb Sababaraha umbul beureum konci ngawengku:

Transaksi Tunai

  • Deposit, séntral atanapi ditarikna langkung ti AED 55,000
  • Sababaraha transaksi di handap ambang pikeun ngahindarkeun ngalaporkeun
  • Mésér alat tunai sapertos cek wisatawan tanpa rencana perjalanan
  • Disangka kalibet dina pemalsuan di UAE

Keuangan Dagang

  • Konsumén nunjukkeun perhatian minimal ngeunaan pamayaran, komisi, dokumén dagang, jsb.
  • Pelaporan palsu ngeunaan detil komoditi sareng rute kiriman
  • Beda signifikan dina kuantitas impor / ékspor atanapi nilai


  • Penjualan tunai sadayana, khususna via transfer kawat ti bank asing
  • Transaksi sareng badan hukum anu kapamilikanna teu tiasa diverifikasi
  • harga beuli inconsistent jeung laporan pangajen
  • Pembelian sareng penjualan sakaligus antara éntitas anu aya hubunganana


  • Pembelian tunai sering barang-barang bernilai luhur pikeun dianggap dijual deui
  • Horéam nyadiakeun bukti asal dana
  • Meuli / jualan tanpa margins kauntungan sanajan status dealer

Formasi Perusahaan

  • Individu ti nagara berisiko tinggi hoyong gancang ngadegkeun perusahaan lokal
  • Kabingungan atanapi hoream ngabahas rinci kagiatan rencanana
  • Requests pikeun mantuan nyumputkeun struktur kapamilikan

Aksi dina Tanggapan Bandéra Beureum

Usaha kedah nyandak ukuran anu wajar nalika ngadeteksi umbul beureum AML poténsial:

Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD)

Ngumpulkeun informasi salajengna ngeunaan nasabah, sumber dana, alam kagiatan jsb bukti tambahan tina ID bisa jadi mandated sanajan ditampa awal.

Review ku Officer minuhan

Patugas patuh AML perusahaan kedah meunteun kawajaran kaayaan sareng nangtukeun tindakan anu cocog.

Laporan Transaksi Curiga (STR)

Upami kagiatan sigana curiga sanaos EDD, kirimkeun STR ka FIU dina 30 dinten. STRs diperlukeun paduli nilai transaksi lamun laundering duit ieu knowingly atawa alesan disangka. Hukuman berlaku pikeun henteu ngalaporkeun.

Tindakan Berbasis Resiko

Ukuran sapertos ngawaskeun ditingkatkeun, ngawatesan kagiatan, atanapi kaluar hubungan tiasa dianggap gumantung kana kasus khusus. Tapi, ngabéréskeun subjek ngeunaan ngajukeun STR dilarang sacara hukum.

Pentingna Ngawaskeun lumangsung

Kalawan laundering duit ngembang sarta téhnik pembiayaan téroris, ngawas transaksi lumangsung sarta vigilance krusial.

Léngkah-léngkah sapertos:

  • Reviewing jasa / produk anyar pikeun kerentanan
  • Ngamutahirkeun klasifikasi résiko customer
  • Evaluasi périodik tina sistem ngawaskeun kagiatan anu curiga
  • Nganalisis transaksi ngalawan propil customer
  • Ngabandingkeun kagiatan pikeun peer atanapi baselines industri
  • Ngawaskeun otomatis daptar sanksi sareng PEP

bisa jadi idéntifikasi proaktif umbul beureum sateuacan masalah ngalobaan.


Ngartos indikator potensi kagiatan terlarang penting pisan pikeun AML minuhan di UAE. Bandéra beureum patali jeung kabiasaan customer mahiwal, pola transacting curiga, ukuran transaksi inconsistent jeung tingkat panghasilan, sarta tanda lianna didaptarkeun di dieu kedah ngajamin panalungtikan salajengna.

Sedengkeun kasus husus nangtukeun lampah luyu, dismissing masalah kaluar leungeun bisa boga konsekuensi serius. Di sagigireun akibat kauangan sareng reputasi, peraturan AML anu ketat di UAE maksakeun tanggung jawab sipil sareng kriminal pikeun henteu patuh.

Lantaran kitu penting pisan pikeun usaha pikeun ngalaksanakeun kadali anu nyukupan sareng mastikeun staf dilatih pikeun mikawanoh sareng ngabales leres kana Indikator Beureum Bandéra dina AML.

Ngeunaan Author Nu

1 thought on “Money Laundering or Hawala in UAE, Laws & Punishments”

  1. Avatar pikeun Colleen

    Salaki kuring geus dieureunkeun di Dubai Airport nyebutkeun anjeunna téh laundering duit anjeunna iinditan jeung loba duit anu Anjeunna nyandak kaluar tina bank UK anjeunna diusahakeun pikeun ngirim sababaraha ka abdi tapi sistem mana handap di bank teu bisa ngalakukeun ieu sarta sakabeh duit manehna boga nyaeta aya ku anjeunna.
    putri-Na geus ngan kungsi operasi Hart sarta bakal discharged ti rumah sakit di Inggris tur kudu aya dimana buka baé heubeul 13 sataun.
    Patugas di bandara nyarios yén anjeunna kedah mayar jumlah 5000Dollars tapi perwira parantos nyandak sadayana artosna.
    Mangga salaki kuring téh lalaki kulawarga jujur ​​alus nu hayang datang imah jeung mawa putri-Na di dieu pikeun Afrika Kidul
    Naon anu kami kiwari sagala bit lamun nasihat bakal mantuan
    hatur nuhun
    Colleen Lawson


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