Ukwebiwa Kwemali noma i-Hawala e-UAE, Imithetho Nezijeziso

I-Hawala kanye Nokwebiwa Kwemali kuchazwa kanjani ngaphansi kwemithetho ye-UAE?

Ngokohlaka lwezomthetho nolokulawula lwe-UAE, i-Hawala kanye Nokwebiwa Kwemali kuchazwa kanje:

I-Hawala: I-UAE Central Bank ichaza i-Hawala njengohlelo lokudlulisa imali olungakahleleki olusebenza ngaphandle kwamashaneli amabhange avamile. Kubandakanya ukudluliswa kwemali isuka kwenye indawo iye kwenye ngabahlinzeki besevisi abaziwa ngokuthi “ama-hawaladar” ngaphandle kokunyakaziswa kohlobo lwemali.

Ukukhwabanisa Kwemali: Ukwebiwa Kwemali kuyicala elingaphansi kwe-UAE Federal Law No. 20 of 2018 on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism. Kuchazwa njengenqubo yokufihla noma yokufihla ubunjalo bangempela, umthombo, indawo, isimo, ukunyakaza, noma ubunikazi bezimali noma izimpahla ezithathwe emisebenzini engekho emthethweni.

Izibonelo ezejwayelekile zifaka: ukwakha/ukukhwabanisa, izinkampani zamagobolondo, ukuthengiselana kwezindlu nemizi, ukuhweba ngokungemthetho, ukusebenza kwekhasino, ukuthengiselana nge-cryptocurrency, ukushushumbiswa kwemali eyinqwaba, nokusebenzisa kabi amanethiwekhi e-Hawala.

I-UAE ithatha ukuma okuqinile ngokumelene nale misebenzi, futhi imiphumela engokomthetho kubantu ngabanye noma amabhizinisi ahililekile ku-Hawala noma Ukushushumbiswa Kwemali ingaba mibi kakhulu. Kubalulekile ukuthobela imithetho ye-UAE emelene nokushushumbiswa kwemali nokwenza imisebenzi yezezimali ngeziteshi ezisemthethweni nezigunyaziwe.

Inini i-Hawala esemthethweni noma engekho emthethweni e-UAE?

I-Hawala, uhlelo lokudlulisa imali olungakahleleki, alukho emthethweni ngokwemvelo e-UAE. Kodwa-ke, yisiteshi esingalawulwayo nesingakahleleki, esingase sixhashazwe ngemisebenzi engekho emthethweni, okuhlanganisa ukushushumbiswa kwemali nokuxhasa ngezimali ubuphekula. Ukuba semthethweni kwemisebenzi ye-Hawala e-UAE kuncike emthonjeni wezimali kanye nenjongo ehlosiwe.

Uma i-Hawala isetshenziselwa ukudlulisa izimali ezithathwe emithonjeni esemthethweni nangezinhloso ezisemthethweni, ingase ibhekwe njengesemthethweni. Kodwa-ke, uma isetshenziselwa ukudlulisa izimali ezitholwe ngezindlela ezingekho emthethweni noma ngemisebenzi engekho emthethweni, njengokushushumbisa imali, ukuxhasa ngezimali ubuphekula, noma ukubalekela intela, kuba semthethweni ngaphansi kwemithetho ye-UAE. Iziphathimandla ziwaqaphe ngeso lokhozi amanethiwekhi e-Hawala ukuze ziqinisekise ukuthotshelwa kwemithetho yokulwa nokushushumbiswa kwemali kanye nemithethonqubo yokulwa nobushokobezi ngezimali.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi nakuba i-Hawala ngokwayo ingekho emthethweni, i-UAE inemithetho eqinile esebenzayo yokulwa nokusetshenziswa kabi kwezinhlelo zokudlulisa imali ezingakahleleki ngezinjongo ezingekho emthethweni. Abantu ngabanye namabhizinisi bayelulekwa ukuba baqaphele futhi benze ukuthengiselana kwezezimali ngeziteshi ezinamalayisense nezilawulwayo ukuze bagweme imiphumela engase ibe khona yezomthetho.

Izinhlobo zamacala Okwebiwa Kwemali e-UAE

I-UAE ibone izinhlobo ezahlukene zamacala okushushumbisa imali abandakanya abantu ngabanye nezinhlangano ezenza imisebenzi engekho emthethweni. Nazi ezinye izinhlobo ezijwayelekile zamacala okushushumbisa imali abonwa e-UAE:

  1. Ukwebiwa Kwemali Okuhlobene Nezakhiwo: Lokhu kuhilela ukuthengwa nokudayiswa kwezakhiwo kusetshenziswa izimali ezitholakala emithonjeni engekho emthethweni, njengokushushumbiswa kwezidakamizwa, ukukhwabanisa, noma inkohlakalo.
  2. Ukwebiwa Kwemali Okusekelwe Ezohwebo: Lolu hlobo lokukhwabanisa lubandakanya ukuhlanekezela amaqiniso kwentengo, inani, noma ikhwalithi yezimpahla ekuthengisweni kokungenisa/ukuthekelisa ukuze kudluliswe izimali ezingekho emthethweni emingceleni.
  3. Ukushushumbiswa Kwemali Eningi: Lokhu kuhilela ukuthuthwa okungokoqobo kwenani elikhulu lemali liwela imingcele, ngokuvamile elifihlwa ezimotweni, emithwalweni, noma kwezinye izindlela, ukuze kugwenywe izimfuneko zokubika futhi kufihlwe umthombo wemali.
  4. Ukwebiwa Kwemali okusekelwe enkampanini yakwaShell: Kulolu hlobo lwesimo, abantu ngabanye noma izinhlangano zisungula izinkampani zomgunyathi noma zegobolondo ukuze zifihle ubunikazi bangempela nomthombo wezimali, futhi zinikeze ikhava ebonakala isemthethweni yemisebenzi engekho emthethweni.
  5. Ukusetshenziswa kabi Kwezinhlelo Zokudlulisa Ivelu Engahlelekile (IVTS) njenge-Hawala: Amacala athile ahilela ukuxhashazwa kwezinhlelo zokudlulisa imali ezingakahleleki njenge-Hawala ukuze kuthuthwe izimali ezingekho emthethweni emhlabeni wonke, kusizakala ngokungabi bikho komkhondo wezezimali ovamile.
  6. I-Cryptocurrency-based Money Laundering: Ngokusetshenziswa okwandayo kwama-cryptocurrensets, ezinye izimo zibandakanya ukusetshenziswa kwezimpahla zedijithali ukuze kufihlwe umnyakazo nomsuka wezimali ezingekho emthethweni, kuxhashazwe ukungaziwa kanye nemvelo yokwahlukaniswa kwalokhu kuthengiselana.
  7. Ukwehliswa kwempahla Ngamakhasino kanye Nezikhungo Zemidlalo: Kwezinye izimo, amakhasino nezindawo zemidlalo zisetshenziselwe ukushintshanisa imali enkulu ngamashidi noma amanye amathuluzi emali, kufihlwe ngempumelelo umthombo wezimali.

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi izinhlelo zokukhwabanisa imali zingaba yinkimbinkimbi futhi ziguquke ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ngokuvamile ezibandakanya inhlanganisela yezindlela neziteshi ezahlukene. Izinyathelo ezisebenzayo zokulwa nokushushumbiswa kwemali, izinhlaka eziqinile zokulawula, nokubambisana kwamazwe ngamazwe kubalulekile ekulweni nalezi zenzo zobugebengu e-UAE.

Uyini umthetho we-Anti Money Laundering e-UAE?

Umthetho Omelene Nokushushumbiswa Kwemali e-UAE ulawulwa Umthetho Wenhlangano No. Lo mthetho obanzi uchaza futhi wenze kube ubugebengu imisebenzi yokukhwabanisa imali, ubeka izinyathelo eziqinile zokulwa nokuxhaswa ngezimali kobuphekula, futhi usungula uhlaka oluqinile lokulawula.

Izici ezibalulekile zoMthetho Wokungeniswa Kwemali e-UAE zifaka:

  1. Incazelo Yokukhwabanisela Imali: Kuchaza ngokusobala ukushushumbiswa kwemali njengokufihla noma ukufihla izimali ezitholakala emisebenzini engekho emthethweni.
  2. Izibopho Zokubika: Idinga izikhungo zezezimali namabhizinisi ukuthi zisebenzise izinyathelo ze-AML/CFT, okuhlanganisa ukukhuthala okufanele kwekhasimende, ukuqapha okwenziwayo, kanye nokubika imisebenzi esolisayo.
  3. Izijeziso kanye Nezijeziso: Ibeka izinhlawulo ezinzima, ezihlanganisa izinhlawulo nokuboshwa, ngokungathobeli.
  4. Iziphathimandla Ezinekhono: Igunyaza ukusungulwa kweziphathimandla ezifana ne-Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) ukuze yengamele imizamo ye-AML/CFT.
  5. Ukubambisana Kwamazwe Ngamazwe: Isiza ukubambisana kanye nokwabelana ngolwazi namanye amazwe ekulweni nokushushumbiswa kwemali kanye nokuxhaswa ngezimali kobuphekula.

Yiziphi Izinhlawulo Ezinkulu Zokugwetshwa Kwemali Yokukhwabanisa e-UAE?

Umthetho Wokushushumbisa Imali we-UAE ubeka izinhlawulo ezinzima kubantu ngabanye namabhizinisi abalahlwe amacala okushushumbisa imali. Izijeziso eziphezulu zokutholwa ngamacala okushushumbisa imali e-UAE zimi kanje:

  1. Ukuboshwa:
    • Kubantu ngabanye: Kuze kube yiminyaka eyi-10 ejele.
    • Kubaphathi noma abamele izinhlangano ezisemthethweni: Kufika eminyakeni eyi-15 ejele.
  2. Izinhlawulo:
    • Kubantu ngabanye: Inhlawulo engeqi ku-AED 5 million (cishe amaRandi ayizigidi ezingu-1.36).
    • Ezinkampanini ezisemthethweni: Inhlawulo engeqi ku-AED 50 million (cishe amaRandi ayizigidi ezingu-13.6).

Ngokungeziwe kulezi zijeziso, abantu abalahlwe yicala noma amabhizinisi angase abhekane:

  • Ukushaqwa kwezimali, izakhiwo, noma izinto ezisetshenziswayo ezihlobene necala lokushushumbisa imali.
  • Ukuhlakazwa noma ukuvalwa kwesikhashana noma unomphela kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni elibandakanyeka ecaleni.
  • Ukushicilelwa kwesinqumo senkantolo emaphephandabeni endawo amabili aphuma nsuku zonke ngezindleko zalowo olahlwe yicala.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi lezi zijeziso zimelela izijeziso eziphezulu ezibekwe umthetho. Isigwebo sangempela singahluka kuye ngezimo ezithile zecala, ubukhulu becala, nezinye izici ezinciphisayo noma ezibhebhethekisayo.

I-UAE ithatha ukuma okuqinile ngokumelene nemisebenzi yokukhwabanisa imali, futhi lezi zijeziso ezinzima zibonisa ukuzibophezela kwezwe ekuvimbeni nasekulweni nobugebengu bezezimali endaweni yayo.

Ingabe zikhona Izihlinzeko Ezikhethekile Zokushushumbiswa Kwemali ezixhumene Nobugebengu Obuhleliwe noma Izimali Zobuphekula?

Yebo, umthetho we-UAE's Anti-Money Laundering uhlanganisa izinhlinzeko ezikhethekile zamacala okushushumbisa imali ahlobene nobugebengu obuhleliwe noma uxhaso lwezimali zobuphekula:

  1. Izijeziso Ezinzima Zobugebengu Obuhleliwe: Uma icala lokushushumbisa imali lenziwa ngaphakathi kohlaka lweqembu lobugebengu obuhleliwe, inhlawulo enkulu yokuboshwa izokwenyuswa ngengxenye ethile.
  2. Ukwenza Uxhaso Lwezimali Zobuphekula: Umthetho wenza kube yicala ukuxhasa ngezimali amaphekula nezinhlangano zamaphekula. Noma yimuphi umuntu oqoqa ngamabomu, adlulise, noma ahlinzeke ngezimali noma impahla ngenhloso yokuyisebenzisela imisebenzi yobuphekula angabhekana nokuboshwa isikhathi eside kanye nezinhlawulo ezinkulu.
  3. Ukubambisana kwamazwe ngamazwe: Umthetho wenza kube lula ukusebenzisana kwamazwe ngamazwe kanye nokwabelana ngolwazi namanye amazwe kanye neziphathimandla ekulweni nokushushumbiswa kwemali, ubugebengu obuhleliwe kanye nokuxhaswa ngezimali kobuphekula. Lokhu kubandakanya izinhlinzeko zokubuyiselwa kanye nokusizana kwezomthetho.
  4. Izijeziso zezezimali eziqondisiwe: I-UAE isebenzise unswinyo lwezezimali oluhlosiwe olubhekiswe kubantu ngabanye namabhizinisi akhethwe UMkhandlu Wezokuphepha WeZizwe Ezihlangene noma ezinye izinhlangano zamazwe ngamazwe ezifanele njengezihileleke ekuxhaseni ngezimali ubuphekula noma ezihlotshaniswa nezinhlangano zamaphekula.

Lezi zinhlinzeko ezikhethekile zigcizelela ukuzibophezela kwe-UAE ekulweni nokuxhaswa ngezimali kobuphekula nobugebengu obuhleliwe, obubeka izinsongo ezinkulu ekuvikelekeni kwezwe kanye nasemhlabeni jikelele. Izijeziso ezinzima kanye nezinyathelo zokubambisana ezithuthukisiwe zamazwe ngamazwe zihlose ukuphazamisa nokuhlakaza le misebenzi engekho emthethweni kanye namanethiwekhi ayo ezezimali.

Izidingo Ezibalulekile Zokuthobela I-AML Zamabhizinisi ase-UAE

Umthetho We-UAE's Anti-Money Laundering ubeka izimfuneko ezimbalwa zokuthobela emabhizinisini asebenza ngaphakathi kwezwe. Nazi izimfuneko ezibalulekile zokuthobela i-AML zamabhizinisi ase-UAE:

  1. Ukubhalisa: Ukubhaliswa okuphoqelekile nge-goAML portal yama-FIs nama-DNFBPs.
  2. Isikhulu sokuthobela i-AML: Khetha isikhulu esizinikezele ukuthi sengamele uhlelo lwe-AML.
  3. Uhlelo lwe-AML: Sungula izinqubomgomo nezinqubo eziphelele ze-KYC, ukuqapha okwenziwayo, ukulawulwa kobungozi, kanye nokubika.
  4. Indlela Esekelwe Engozini: Hlela uhlelo lwe-AML ngosayizi webhizinisi, imvelo, kanye nezingozi zemvelo.
  5. Ukukhuthala Kwekhasimende (CDD): Yenza ukuhlola okuphelele kwe-KYC, okuhlanganisa ukuqinisekiswa kobunikazi kanye nokuhlonza ubunikazi obuzuzisayo.
  6. Ukukhuthala Okufanele Okuthuthukisiwe (EDD): Sebenzisa izinyathelo ezengeziwe kumakhasimende asengozini enkulu njengama-PEP.
  7. Ukuqapha Okwenziwayo: Gada okwenziwayo kwemisebenzi esolisayo.
  8. Ukubika Umsebenzi Osolisayo: Bika ukuthengiselana okusolisayo ku-Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU).
  9. Ukugcinwa kwerekhodi: Gcina amarekhodi ekhasimende nawokwenziwe okungenani iminyaka emi-5.
  10. Ukuqeqeshwa Kwabasebenzi: Nikeza ukuqeqeshwa okujwayelekile kwe-AML/CFT kubasebenzi.
  11. Ukucwaningwa Kwamabhuku Okuzimele: Yenza ukucwaningwa kwamabhuku okuvamile kohlelo lwe-AML/CFT.
  12. Ukusebenzisana Neziphathimandla: Sebenzisana neziphathimandla futhi unikeze ulwazi oludingekayo.

Ukwehluleka ukuthobela lezi zidingo kungaholela ezijezisweni ezinzima, ezihlanganisa izinhlawulo, ukuboshwa, nokuhoxiswa kwamalayisensi okungenzeka noma ukuvalwa kwebhizinisi. Amabhizinisi asebenza e-UAE kufanele abeke phambili ukuthobela i-AML ukuze anciphise ubungozi futhi agcine ubuqotho besistimu yezezimali.

Ayini ama-Red Flags ku-AML?

Amafulegi abomvu abhekisela ezinkomba ezingajwayelekile ezibonisa umsebenzi okungenzeka ungekho emthethweni odinga uphenyo olwengeziwe. Amafulegi abomvu e-AML ajwayelekile ahlobene:

Ukuziphatha Kwekhasimende Okusolisayo

  • Imfihlo mayelana nobuwena noma ukungafuni ukunikeza ulwazi
  • Ukungabaza ukunikeza imininingwane mayelana nemvelo nenjongo yebhizinisi
  • Izinguquko ezivamile nezingachazeki ekuhlonzeni ulwazi
  • Imizamo esolisayo yokugwema izimfuneko zokubika

Okwenziwayo Okunobungozi obukhulu

  • Izinkokhelo ezinkulu zemali ngaphandle komsuka ocacile wezimali
  • Okwenziwayo namabhizinisi asendaweni engcuphe kakhulu
  • Izakhiwo zedili eziyinkimbinkimbi ezifihla ubunikazi obuzuzisayo
  • Usayizi ongavamile noma imvamisa yephrofayela yekhasimende

Izimo Ezingajwayelekile

  • Okwenziwayo akunayo incazelo ephusile/isizathu sezomnotho
  • Ukungahambisani nemisebenzi evamile yekhasimende
  • Ukungajwayelani nemininingwane yemisebenzi eyenziwe egameni lomuntu

Amafulegi Abomvu Kokuqukethwe kwe-UAE

I-UAE ibhekene ngqo izingozi zokukhwabanisa imali kusukela ekusabalaliseni imali ephezulu, ukuhweba ngegolide, ukuthengiselana kwezindlu njll. Amanye amafulegi abomvu abalulekile ahlanganisa:

Ukuthengiselana Ngemali

  • Idiphozithi, ukushintshana noma ukuhoxiswa nge-AED 55,000
  • Imisebenzi eminingi engaphansi komkhawulo ukugwema ukubika
  • Ukuthengwa kwamathuluzi emali njengokuhlola abahambi ngaphandle kwezinhlelo zokuhamba
  • Izinsolo zokubandakanyeka ku umgunyathi e-UAE

Ezezimali Zohwebo

  • Amakhasimende abonisa ukukhathazeka okuncane mayelana nezinkokhelo, amakhomishini, imibhalo yokuhweba, njll.
  • Ukubika okungamanga kwemininingwane yempahla nemizila yokuthunyelwa
  • Umehluko omkhulu enanini yokungenisa/yokuthekelisa noma amanani

Ukuthengisa izindlu

  • Ukuthengiswa kwemali yonke, ikakhulukazi ngokuthunyelwa ngezintambo kumabhange angaphandle
  • Okwenziwayo nezinhlangano ezisemthethweni ubunikazi bazo obungakwazi ukuqinisekiswa
  • Izintengo zokuthenga azihambisani nemibiko yokulinganisa
  • Ukuthenga nokuthengisa ngesikhathi esisodwa phakathi kwezinhlangano ezihlobene

Igolide/Ubucwebe

  • Ukuthengwa kwezimali okuvamile kwezinto zenani eliphezulu zokudayiswa kabusha
  • Ukungabaza ukunikeza ubufakazi bemvelaphi yezimali
  • Ukuthenga/ukuthengisa ngaphandle kwemajini yenzuzo naphezu kwesimo somthengisi

Ukuguqulwa Kwenkampani

  • Umuntu ovela ezweni elisengozini enkulu ofuna ukusungula inkampani yendawo ngokushesha
  • Ukudideka noma ukungabaza ukuxoxa ngemininingwane yemisebenzi ehleliwe
  • Izicelo zokusiza ukufihla izakhiwo zobunikazi

Izenzo Ekuphenduleni Amafulegi Abomvu

Amabhizinisi kufanele athathe izinyathelo ezifanele lapho ethola amafulege abomvu e-AML angaba khona:

Ukukhuthala Okufanele Okuthuthukisiwe (EDD)

Qoqa ulwazi olwengeziwe mayelana nekhasimende, umthombo wezimali, uhlobo lwemisebenzi njll. Ubufakazi obengeziwe be-ID bungagunyazwa naphezu kokwamukelwa kokuqala.

Ukubuyekezwa kweSikhulu Sokuthobela

Isikhulu sokuthobela i-AML senkampani kufanele sihlole ukufaneleka kwesimo futhi sinqume izenzo ezifanele.

Imibiko yokwenziwayo esolisayo (STRs)

Uma umsebenzi ubonakala usolisa naphezu kwe-EDD, thumela i-STR ku-FIU phakathi kwezinsuku ezingu-30. Ama-STR ayadingeka kungakhathaliseki inani lomsebenzi uma ukushushumbiswa kwemali kusolwa ngamabomu noma ngokuphusile. Kusebenza izinhlawulo zokungabikwa.

Izenzo Ezisekelwe Engozini

Izinyathelo ezifana nokuqapha okuthuthukisiwe, umsebenzi okhawulelayo, noma ubudlelwano bokuphuma kungase kucatshangelwe kuye ngezimo ezithile. Kodwa-ke, ukuxwayisa ngezihloko eziphathelene nokufakwa kwama-STR akuvunyelwe ngokomthetho.

Ukubaluleka Kokuqapha Okuqhubekayo

Ngamasu athuthukayo okushushumbisa imali kanye namaphekula, ukuqapha nokuqapha okuqhubekayo kubalulekile.

Izinyathelo ezifana nalezi:

  • Ukubuyekeza amasevisi/imikhiqizo emisha ngobungozi
  • Ibuyekeza izigaba zengcuphe yekhasimende
  • Ukuhlolwa ngezikhathi ezithile kwezinhlelo zokuqapha umsebenzi osolisayo
  • Ukuhlaziya okwenziwayo kuqhathaniswa namaphrofayili ekhasimende
  • Ukuqhathanisa imisebenzi nontanga noma izisekelo zemboni
  • Ukuqapha okuzenzakalelayo kohlu lwezinhlawulo nama-PEP

Nika amandla ukuhlonza amafulegi abomvu ngaphambi kokuba izinkinga ziphindaphindeke.

Isiphetho

Ukuqonda izinkomba zomsebenzi ongekho emthethweni ongaba khona kubalulekile Ukuhambisana ne-AML e-UAE. Amafulegi abomvu ahlobene nokuziphatha kwekhasimende okungajwayelekile, amaphethini okwenza izinto asolisayo, osayizi bokwenziwe abangahambisani namazinga emali engenayo, nezinye izimpawu ezibalwe lapha kufanele zigunyaze uphenyo olwengeziwe.

Nakuba izimo ezithile zinquma izenzo ezifanele, ukuhoxisa ukukhathazeka kungase kube nemiphumela emibi kakhulu. Ngaphandle kwemiphumela yezezimali nesithunzi, imithetho eqinile ye-AML ye-UAE ibeka isibopho somphakathi kanye nobugebengu ngokungathobeli.

Ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukuthi amabhizinisi asebenzise izilawuli ezanele futhi aqinisekise ukuthi abasebenzi baqeqeshwe ukuze babone futhi baphendule ngokufanele Ezinkomba Zefulegi Elibomvu ku-AML.

Mayelana Umlobi

Umcabango ongu-1 kokuthi “Ukukhwabanisa Kwemali noma i-Hawala e-UAE, Imithetho Nezijeziso”

  1. Isithombe sika-Colleen

    Umyeni wami usemiswe e-Dubai Airport ethi imali yokukhwabanisa wayehamba ngemali eningi ayithatha ebhange lase-UK wazama ukungithumela kimi kodwa izinhlelo lapho phansi ebhange futhi akakwazanga ukwenza lokhu futhi yonke imali anayo ikhona naye.
    Indodakazi yakhe isanda kusebenza futhi izokhishwa esibhedlela e-UK futhi ngeke ibe khona lapho eya khona kuyinyaka engu-13.
    Isikhulu esikhumulweni sezindiza sithi sidinga ukukhokha imali engama-5000Dollars kodwa izikhulu ziyithathile yonke imali yayo.
    Ngicela umyeni wami abe ngumndeni othembekile othanda ukuza ekhaya futhi alethe indodakazi yakhe lapha eNingizimu Afrika
    Senzani manje noma yikuphi uma iseluleko sizosiza
    Ngiyabonga
    Colleen Lawson

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